Total parenteral nutrition

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Total parenteral nutrition

  1. 1.  Until the early 1960s, the use of intravenous nutrition was restricted to high concentrations of dextrose and electrolytes.  In 1962, Wretlind and colleagues developed lipid infusions as the principle source of calories for parenteral feeding.  In 1966, Dudrick and Rhoads developed parenteral nutrition (PN) for patients who had lost their small bowel.  In 1976, Solassol and Joyeux developed the three-in- one mixture by putting sugars, lipids and amino acids in a single bag.  In 1978, Shils and colleagues and Jeejeebhoy and colleagues developed ‘home’ PN to reduce costs.
  2. 2.  Human nutrition is the provision to obtain the essential nutrients necessary to support life and health  Nutrients are the substances that are not synthesized in sufficient quantity in the body and therefore must be supplied from diet  Macronutrients mainly carbohydrates, fats, protein, dietary fiber and water  Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals and trace elements
  3. 3.  Protein (Amino acids)  Fat  Carbohydrate  Dietary fiber  Water and electrolytes  Vitamins  minerals  Trace elements
  4. 4.  Pts should be assessed for PEM as well as specific nutrient deficiencies History: assess for change in diet pattern (size, number and content of meals)  Unintentional weight loss  Evidence of malabsorption  Symptoms of specific nutrient deficiencies  Look for factors which may increase metabolic stress (infection, inflammation, malignancy)  Functional status (bed ridden, suboptimally active, fully active)
  5. 5.  By WHO criteria, pts can be classified by BMI as underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9),  class I obesity(30-34.9), class II obesity(35-39.9) class III obesity(>40)  Pts who are extremely underweight (BMI<14 kg/m2) or those with rapid, severe weight loss have high risk of death and should be considered for admission to the hospital for nutritional support
  6. 6.  Look for tissue depletion(loss of body fat and skeletal muscle wasting)  Assess muscle function (strength testing of individual muscle groups)  Fluid status: dehydration or fluid overload  Look for sources of protein or nutrient losses: large wounds, burns, nephrotic syndrome, chronic diseases, GI losses of nutrients, surgical drains.  Lab parameters: plasma albumin, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals
  7. 7.  Critical illness induces anorexia and the inability to eat normally, predisposing patients to serious nutritional deficits, muscle wasting, weakness, and delayed recovery, longer stay in hospital  For critically ill pts provision of specialized nutritional support considered which represent major advance in medical therapy  Although at least 15-20% of pts in acute care hospitals have evidence of significant malnutrition, only a small fraction will benefit from SNS
  8. 8.  Nutritional support, via either enteral or parenteral routes, is used in three main settings: (1) To provide adequate nutritional intake during recuperative phase of illness or injury (2) to support the pts during systemic response to inflammation, injury or infection during an extended critical illness (3) pts with permanent loss of intestinal length or function
  9. 9.  Decision to use SNS should be based on the likelihood that preventing PEM will increase the likelihood of recovery, reduce infection rate, improve healing and shorten the stay in hospital  SNS should be recommended only when potential benefits exceed risks, and it should be undertaken with consent of the pt
  10. 10.  Efficacy studies have shown that malnourished pts undergoing major thoracoabdominal surgery benefit from SNS, critical illness requiring ICU care, including major burns, major trauma, severe sepsis, closed head injuries and severe pancreatitis, all benefit from early nutritional support, as indicated by reduced mortality and morbidity
  11. 11.  Refers to feeding via a tube placed into the gut to deliver liquid formulas containing all essential nutrients  Preferred route because of benefits derived from maintaining the digestive, absorptive and immunological barrier function of GIT  Enteral/tube feeding is useful in pts who have functional GIT, but who cannot digest or ingest adequate amount of nutrients  Short term (<6 weeks) tube feeding can be achieved by nasogastric, nasoduodenal or nasojejunal tubes
  12. 12.  Long term feeding (>6 wk) usually requires gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube that can be placed percutaneously by endoscopic (PEG) or radiographic assistance  Enteral feeding is often required in pts with anorexia, impaired swallowing, or bowel disease. The bowel and its associated digestive organs derive 70% of their required nutrients directly from food in lumen  Enteral formulas: standard (osmolality- 300) and modified  Complications of enteral feeding include mainly aspiration pneumonia and diarrhoea
  13. 13.  Enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications than parenteral nutrition and is less expensive to administer.  However, the use of enteral nutrition alone often does not achieve caloric targets.  In addition, underfeeding is associated with weakness, infection, increased duration of mechanical ventilation, increased duration of hospital stay and death.  Combining parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition constitutes a strategy to prevent nutritional deficit but may risk overfeeding which has been associated with liver dysfunction, infection, and prolonged ventilatory support.
  14. 14.  The consequences of major surgeries and PEM can lead to hypermetabolism and subsequent malnutrition. A strong association exist between malnutrition and increased post operative morbidity and mortality.  The administration of TPN can prevent the effects of starvation in pts with non functional GIT  Parenteral nutrition should be considered if energy intake has been inadequate for more than 7-10 days and enteral feeding is not feasible. (based on ICU focused meta- analysis discussed in 2009 ASPEN)
  15. 15. The gut should always be the preferred route for nutrient administration.  Therefore, parenteral nutrition is indicated generally when there is severe gastro-intestinal dysfunction (cannot take sufficient food or feeding formulas by the enteral route) .
  16. 16.  It involves the continuous infusion of a hyperosmolar solution containing carbohydrates, proteins, fat and other necessary electrolytes through an indwelling catheter inserted into (usually) SVC to meet the nutritional needs of the patient.  PN through a peripheral vein is limited by osmolality and volume constraints  Solutions that contain more than 3% aminoacid and 5% glucose are poorly tolerated peripherally
  17. 17.  Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) administered through a peripheral intravenous catheter. The osmolarity of PPN solutions generally is limited to 1,000 mOsm (approximately 12% dextrose solution) to avoid phlebitis. Thus, large volumes (>2,500 mL) are needed. Temporary nutritional supplementation with PPN may be useful Generally intended as supplement to oral feeding and is not optimal for critically ill pts
  18. 18.  Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides complete nutritional support The solution, volume of administration, and additives are individualized based on an assessment of the nutritional requirements.
  19. 19.  TPN formulation without lipid (2-in-1 solution) Calories from amino acids- 20 to 25% Calories from dextrose- 75-80%  TPN formulation with lipid ( 3-in-1 solution)  calories from amino acids- 20 to 25%  calories from lipids- 20%  calories from dextrose- 55 to 60 %
  20. 20.  Special solutions that contain low, intermediate, or high nitrogen concentrations as well as varying amounts of fat and carbohydrate are available for pts with diabetes, renal or pulmonary failure, or hepatic dysfunction.
  21. 21.  Additives: Electrolytes (i.e., sodium, potassium, chloride, acetate, calcium, magnesium, phosphate) should be adjusted daily. The number of cations and anions must balance; this is achieved by altering the concentrations of chloride and acetate. If the serum bicarbonate is low, the solution should contain more acetate. The calcium:phosphate ratio must be monitored to prevent salt precipitation.
  22. 22.  Medications: Albumin, H2-receptor antagonists, heparin, iron, dextran, insulin, and metoclopramide can be administered in TPN solutions. However, not all medications are compatible with 3-in-1 admixtures. Regular insulin should initially be administered subcutaneously according to a sliding scale, based on a determination of the blood glucose level. After a stable insulin requirement has been established, insulin can be administered in the TPN solution, generally at two thirds of the daily subcutaneous insulin dose.
  23. 23.  Crystalline amino acid solutions containing 40- 50% essential and 50-60% non essential amino acids are used to provide protein needs  Some amino acid solutions have been modified: rich in branched chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy, rich in essential amino acid for renal insufficiency pts  Glucose in IV solutions is hydrated; each gm of dextrose monohydrate provides 3.4 kcal. While there is no absolute requirement of glucose in most pts, providing >150g glucose/d maximizes protein balance
  24. 24.  Lipid emulsions are available as 10% (1.1kcal/ml) or 20% (2 kcal/ml) solutions and provide energy as well as source of essential fatty acids.  Rate of infusion should not exceed 1 kcal/kg/h
  25. 25.  Climomel N5-800  Clinimix N9G-20E  Kabiven  Vitrimix  Celemix-G
  26. 26.  gastrointestinal cutaneous fistula Renal failure (ATN)  Short bowel syndrome Severe burns Hepatic failure Crohn’s disease Anorexia nervosa Acute radiation enteritis Acute chemotherapy toxicity Prolonged ileus Weight loss preliminary to major surgery
  27. 27. Energy  Basal energy requirement is the function of the individual's weight, age, gender, activity level and the disease process  The major components of energy output are resting energy expenditure and physical activity; minor sources include the energy cost of metabolizing food and shivering thermogenesis.  Total energy expenditure= resting energy expenditure (70% of TEE) +thermic effect of food (10% of TEE) + energy expenditure of physical activity (20% of TEE)
  28. 28.  Average energy intake is about 2600 kcal/d for men and 1900 kcal/d for female, though these estimates vary with body size and activity level  Formula for estimating REE are useful for assessing the energy needs of an individual whose weight is stable  For males, REE=900+10m, and for females, REE=700+7m, where m is mass in kilograms  Calculated REE is the adjusted for physical activity level (multiplying by 1.2 for sedentary, 1.4 for moderately active and 1.8 for very active)
  29. 29. TEE = REE + Stress Factor + Activity Factor Rest Energy Expenditure  Adults (18-65) 20-30 kcal/kg  Elderly (65+) 25 kcal/kg  For burns Patients 30-35kcal/kg Other factors:  Pregnancy: Add 300 kcal/day  Lactation: Add 500 kcal/day  Obese or Super obese 15-20 kcal/kg
  30. 30. peritonitis + 15% • soft tissue trauma + 15% • fracture + 20% • fever (per oC rise) + 13% • Moderate infection + 20% • Severe infection + 40% • <20% BSA Burns + 50% • 20-40% BSA Burns + 80% • >40% BSA Burns + 100%
  31. 31. BMI (kg/m2) Energy requirement (kcal/kg/d) 15 35-40 15-19 30-35 20-24 20-25 25-29 15-20 30 and >30 <15 These values are recommended for critically ill pts and obese pts; add 20% of total calories in estimating energy requirement in non critically ill pts
  32. 32.  Requirement 2g/kg/day  1grams=5kcal/g  40-50 percent of total nutrition  Generally, because glucose is an essential tissue fuel, glucose and amino acids are provided parenterally until the level of resting energy expenditure is reached. Fats are added thereafter
  33. 33.  Requirement 3 g/kg/day  1 gram= 9kcal/g  30-40 percent of nutrition  Liver can synthesize most fatty acids, but humans lack the desaturase enzyme needed to produce n-3 and n-6 fatty acid series. Therefore linoleic acid should constitute at least 2% and linolenic acid at least 0.5% of daily caloric intake to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency
  34. 34. Clinical condition requirement normal 0.8 Metabolic stress (illness, injury) 1.0-1.5 Acute renal failure (undialyzed) 0.8-1.0 hemodialysis 1.2-1.4 Peritoneal dialysis 1.3-1.5 Additional protein intake may be needed to compensate for excess protein loss in specific patient population such as burn injuries, open wounds, protein losing Enteropathy / Nephropathy. A lower protein intake may be necessary in patient with chronic renal insufficiency who are not treated by dialysis and certain patients with hepatic encephalopathy
  35. 35.  The standard enteral and parenteral formulas contain protein of high biological value and meet the requirements for the eight essential amino acids  Protein or nitrogen balance provides a measure of feeding efficacy of PN or EN  Calculated as protein intake/6.25 minus 24h urine urea nitrogen plus 4g nitrogen, which reflects the other losses
  36. 36. Nitrogen Balance = N input - N output 6.25 g protein provides 1 g of nitrogen as 100grams contains 16 g nitrogen N input = (protein in g / 6.25) N output = 24h urinary urea nitrogen + non-urinary N losses  +4 to + 6: Net anabolism  +1 to - 1: Homeostasis  -2 to – 1: Net catabolism
  37. 37. ESTIMATING ADULT FLUID REQUIREMENTS By caloric intake : 1ml/calorie  Example: 1800 calorie diet = 1800 calories x 1ml= 1800ml By body weight and age : average requirement is 30 ml/kg/d  16-55 years 35 ml/kg/d  56-65 years 30 ml/kg/d  > 65 years 25 ml/kg/d
  38. 38.  Sodium 70 – 100 mEq/day  Chloride 70 – 100 mEq/day  Potassium 70 – 100 mEq/day  Calcium 10 – 20 mEq/day  Magnesium 15 – 20 mEq/day  Phosphorus 40-60 mEq/day  Acetate 0 – 60 mEq/day
  39. 39.  Vitamin A 3300 IU  Vitamin D 200 IU  Vitamin E 10 IU  Vitamin K - 150 mcg  Ascorbic acid 100 mg  Folic Acid 0.4 mg  Niacin 40 mg  Riboflavin (B2) 3.6 mg  Thiamin (B1) 3 mg  Pyridoxine (B6) 4 mg  Cyanocobalamin (B12) 5 mcg  Pantothenic acid 15 mg  Biotin 60 mcg
  40. 40.  Zinc 2.5-4 mg  Copper 0.5-1.5mg  Chromium 10-15 mcg  Selenium 20-60 mcg  Manganese 150-800 mcg
  41. 41.  Introduction of TPN should be gradual. For example, approximately 1,000 kcal is provided the first day. If there is metabolic stability (i.e., normoglycemia), this is increased to the caloric goal over 1 to 2 days.  TPN solutions are delivered most commonly as a continuous infusion. A new 3-in-1 admixture bag of TPN is administered daily at a constant infusion rate over 24 hours. Additional maintenance intravenous fluids are unnecessary, and total infused volume should be kept constant while nutritional content is increased.
  42. 42.  Cyclic administration of TPN solutions may be useful for (1) those who will be discharged from the hospital and subsequently receive home TPN, (2) those with limited intravenous access who require administration of other medications, and (3) those who are metabolically stable and desire a period during the day when they can be free of an infusion pump.  Cyclic TPN is administered for 8 to 16 hours, most commonly at night. This should not be done until metabolic stability has been demonstrated for patients on standard, continuous TPN infusions.
  43. 43.  Venous access  The infusion of hyperosmoler nutrient solution requires a large bore, high flow vessel to minimize vessel irritation and damage.  Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization and PICC are the most commonly used techniques for parenteral nutrition  Catheter can be placed via the subclavian vein, the jugular vein (less desirable because of the high rate of associated infection), or a long catheter placed in an arm vein and threaded into the central venous system (a peripherally inserted central catheter line)  Position of catheter is confirmed by radiograph
  44. 44. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES  Bed side technique  Avoids complications of central venous catheter  Avoid multiple venous cannulations  Hypertonic solutions can be given  Trained personnel is needed  Line blockage  Mal position  Phlebitis  Line sepsis  thrombosis
  45. 45. advantages disadvantages  Central access needed  Multiple lumen can be used in acute emergency  Hypertonic solutions can be given  Can be placed for than 6 weeks  Inserted in theatre  Increase infection rate  Multiple complications
  46. 46. advantages disadvantages  Convenient exit site  Long lasting than non tunnels  Hypertonic solutions can be given  Removal needs surgical dissection  Catheter related sepsis  Other complications
  47. 47. Clinical Data Monitored Daily General sense of well-being Strength as evidenced in getting out of bed, walking, resistance exercise as appropriate Vital signs including temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate Fluid balance: weight at least several times weekly, fluid intake (parenteral and enteral) vs. fluid output (urine, stool, gastric drainage, wound, ostomy) Parenteral nutrition delivery equipment: tubing, pump, filter, catheter, dressing Nutrient solution composition
  48. 48. Laboratory Daily Finger-stick glucose Three times daily until stable Blood glucose, Na, K, Cl, HCO3, BUN Daily until stable and fully advanced, then twice weekly Serum creatinine, albumin, PO4, Ca, Mg, Hb/Hct, WBC Baseline, then twice weekly INR Baseline, then weekly Micronutrient tests As indicated
  49. 49.  Discontinuation of TPN should take place when the patient can satisfy 75% of his or her caloric and protein needs with oral intake or enteral feeding.  To discontinue TPN, the infusion rate should be halved for 1 hour, halved again the next hour, and then discontinued.  Tapering in this manner prevents rebound hypoglycemia from hyperinsulinemia.  It is not necessary to taper the rate if the patient demonstrates glycemic stability.
  50. 50. Complications Of TPN Mechanical metabolicinfectious
  51. 51. Air embolism  pneumothorax  hemothorax Cardiac tamponade Injuries to arteries and veins Injury to thoracic duct Brachial plexus injury
  52. 52.  Early or nutrient related  hyperglycemia  hypoglycemia  hyperlipidemia  refeeding syndrome  late or related to long term administration  hepatic dysfunction Steatosis, steatohepatitis, lipidosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis  biliary complications: acalculous cholecystitis, Gb sludge, cholelithiasis Metabolic bone disease: osteomalaacia, osteopenia
  53. 53.  Fluid overload  Hypo/hypernatremia  Hypercalcemia  Hypo/hyperkalemia Infection :  Catheter related sepsis is most common life threatening complication  Causes: staph epidermidis and staph aureus, enterococcus, candida, E coli, psuedomonas, klebsiella etc in immunocompromised pts
  54. 54.  Severe electrolyte and fluid shifts that may result from refeeding after severe weight loss (PEM)  Hypophosphatemia is the hallmark of refeeding syndrome due to shift from fat to glucose metabolism.  Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia  ↓K and ↓PO4→ ATP deficiency which can be life threatening.
  55. 55.  Store reconstituted PN bags in a refrigerator until use  Always use aseptic techniques while connecting and infusing PN  Always use an infusion set with in-built air vent and 0.2 m filter  Never insert a needle for air venting in a PN bag  Never add any medication to the PN bag  Avoid frequent changes in the formulation of the PN solution  Infuse the prescribed volume and avoid wastage of PN solution
  56. 56.  Clinical trials and meta-analysis of parenteral feeding in the perioperative period have suggested that preoperative nutritional support may benefit some surgical patients, particularly those with extensive malnutrition.  Short-term use of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients (duration <7 days) when enteral nutrition may have been instituted is associated with higher rates of infectious complications
  57. 57.  Parenteral feeding with complete bowel rest results in augmented stress hormone and inflammatory mediator response to an antigenic challenge .  In cancer patients, parenteral nutrition has not been shown to benefit clinical response, survival, or toxic effects of chemotherapy, while infectious complications increased.  Following severe injury, parenteral nutrition is associated with higher rates of infectious risks when compared with enteral feeding
  58. 58.  the early initiation of parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition during the first week after ICU admission in severely ill patients at risk for malnutrition appears to be inferior to the strategy of withholding parenteral nutrition until day 8 while providing vitamins, trace elements, and minerals. Late parenteral nutrition was associated with fewer infections, enhanced recovery, and lower health care costs
  59. 59.  Subjects receiving intravenous feedings and bowel rest had significantly exaggerated response to injury
  60. 60.  Strict asepsis  24-hr TPN prepared at a time  Changing infusion sets daily  New amino acid, lipid bottles daily  Separate IV access for other drugs  Serum Na, K on alt. days; renal parameters biweekly; LFT, triglycerides weekly

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