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Training and development

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  • 1. 1U1TRAINING DEFINEDIt is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts,rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees.Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. • It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it • It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there • It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome • It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it • Its not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision • It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve itTraining is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situationlooks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professionaldevelopment.InformationAt its most basic form, a piece of information about something is a "unit of awareness" aboutthat thing. Some people think that this awareness occurs only in the brain and, therefore, usuallycomes from some form of thought. Other people also accept information as a form of realizationfrom other forms of inquiry, e.g., intuition.KnowledgeKnowledge is gleaned by organizing information. Typically, information evolves to knowledgeby the learners gaining context, perspective and scope about the information.SkillsSkills are applying knowledge in an effective and efficient manner to get something done. Onenotices skills in an employee by their behaviors.TaskA task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce someresult, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in theorganization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions.Training
  • 2. 2JobA job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobshave titles.RoleA role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usuallyincludes several roles.LearningTypically, learning is viewed as enhancing ones knowledge, understanding or skills. Somepeople see learning as enhancement to ones knowledge, awareness and skills. Someprofessionals view learning as enhancing ones capacity to perform. Some view learning as a wayof being that includes strong value on receiving feedback and increasing understanding. Itsimportant to note that learning is more than collecting information -- more than collectingunreferenced books on a shelf. Depending on the needs of the learner, knowledge is converted toskills, that is, the learner knows how to apply the knowledge to get something done. Ideally, theskills are applied to the most appropriate tasks and practices in the organization, therebyproducing performance -- results needed by the organization. Heres another perspective.Continuous LearningSimply put, continuous learning is the ability to learn to learn. Learning need not be a linearevent where a learner goes to a formal learning program, gains areas of knowledge and skillsabout a process, and then the learning ceases. If the learner can view life (including work) as a"learning program", then the learner can continue to learn from almost everything in life. As aresult, the learner continues to expand his or her capacity for living, including working. (SeeContinuous Learning.)EducationThis term seems to be the most general of the key terms in employee training. Someprofessionals view education as accomplishing a personal context and understanding of theworld, so that ones life and work are substantially enhanced, e.g., "Go get an education." Othersview the term as the learning required to accomplish a new task or job. Heres anotherperspective.DevelopmentThis term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activitiesamong them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. Thisdevelopment often includes a wide variety of methods, e.g., orienting about a role, training in awide variety of areas, ongoing training on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as a life-long goal and experience. Heres anotherperspective.Training
  • 3. 3Learning Principles: The Philosophy of trainingTraining is essential for job success. It can lead to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater jobsatisfaction and lower turnover. These benefits accrue to both the trainee and the organization, ifmanagers understand the principles behind the training process. To this end, training efforts mustinvariably follow certain learning oriented guidelines. Modeling Modeling is simply copying someone else’s behavior. Passive classroom learning does not leave any room for modeling. If we want to change people, it would be a good idea to have video tapes of people showing the desired behavior. The selected model should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. A great deal of human behavior is learned by modeling others. Children learn by modeling parents and older children, they are quite comfortable with the process by the time they grow up. As experts put it “managers tend to manage as they were managed”. Motivation For learning to take place, intention to learn is important. When the employee is motivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented. Motivation to learn is influenced by the answer to question such as: How important is my job to me? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in the company? Etc. people learn more quickly when the material is important and relevant to them. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting when the leaner participates actively. Most people, for example, never forgot how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in the learning process. ReinforcementTraining
  • 4. 4 If a behavior is rewarded, it probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviors. People avoid certain behavior that invites criticism and punishment. A bank officer would want to do a postgraduate course in finance, if it earns him increments and makes him eligible for further promotions. Both the external rewards and the internal rewards associated with desired behavior only. If he rewards poor performance, the result may be disastrous: good performance may quite in frustration, accident may go up, and productivity may suffer. The reinforcement principle is also based on the premise that punishment is less effective in learning than reward. Punishment is a pointer to undesirable behaviors. When administered, it causes pain to the employee. He mayor may not repeat the mistakes. The reactions may be mild or wild. Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. If administered properly, punishment may force the trainee to modify the undesired or incorrect behavior. Feedback People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training. Every employee wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. If he is off the track, somebody must put him back on the rails. The errors in such cases must be retified immediately. The trainee after learning the right behavior is motivation to do things in a right way and earn the associated rewards. Positive feedback is to be preferred to negative feedback when we want to change behavior. Spaced Practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. New employees learn better if the orientation program is spread over a 2 r 3 days period, instead of covering it all in one day. For memorizing tasks, ‘masses’ practice is usually more effective. Imagine the way school ask the kids to say the Lord ’s Prayer aloud. Can you memories a long poem by learning only one line per day? You tend to forgot the beginning of the poem by the time you reach the last stanza. For acquiring skills as stated by Mathis and Jackson, spaced practice is usually the best. This incremental approach to skill acquisition minimizes the physical fatigue that deters learning. Whole learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employee learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various action fit together into the big picture. A broad overview of what the trainee would be doing on the job should be given top priority, if learning has to take place quickly. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals. Active practice ‘Practise makes a man perfect’ so said Bacon. To be a swimmer, you should plunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of the worlds best swimmers. Learning is enhanced wahen trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefits, practice sessions should be distributed overtime.Training
  • 5. 5 Applicability of Training Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs. The training situations should be set up so that trainees can visualise - and identify with - the types of situations they can come across on the job. Environment Finally, environment plays a major role in training. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate, well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal. Generally speaking, learning is very fast at the beginning. Thereafter, the pace of learning slows down as opportunities for improvement taper off.ROLE OF TRAININGImportance Of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.Training
  • 6. 6 • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets moreeffective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying outorganizational policiesTraining and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, betterattitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.REASONS FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTTraining and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group ofemployees, e.g.,: • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed • To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort • As part of an overall professional development program • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization • To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system • To train about a specific topic (see below)TYPICAL TOPICS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING 1. Communications: The increasing diversity of todays workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 3. Customer service: Increased competition in todays global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversityTraining
  • 7. 7 5. Ethics: Todays society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, todays diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of todays workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organizations policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.GENERAL BENEFITS FROM EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTThere are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several ofthese sites (theyre listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conducttraining among employees. These reasons include: • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees • Increased employee motivation • Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods • Increased innovation in strategies and products • Reduced employee turnover • Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) • Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity trainingIMPORTANCE OF TRAINING OBJECTIVESTraining objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some peoplethink of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is thatresources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. Itprovides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectivesfocus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan.Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the trainingprogram. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholderperspectives. 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. DesignerTraining
  • 8. 8 4. EvaluatoeTrainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer tomeasure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in aposition to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing theanxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which isunknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep theparticipants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the trainingsuccessful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actuallyhelps in gaining attention.Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving thosegoals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectiveshelps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer isaware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to thatonly. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, andtraining content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps indealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one trainingprogram is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known,the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonalskills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there isa defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the trainingmay not be designed appropriately.Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the traineesbecause the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is animportant to tool to judge the performance of participants.Areas of Training The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories. Knowledge Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company. Technical Skills The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine, handling computer etc.) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully.Training
  • 9. 9 Social Skills The employee is made to learn about himself and others, and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. Techniques This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at moulding employee attitudes: When administered properly, a training programme will go a long way in obt8ining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities.Types of Training There are many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present-day organisations. Skills training: This type of training is most common in organisations. The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern organisations (such as lectures, apprenticeship, on-the-job, coaching etc.). Before employing these methods, managers should: • explain how the training will help the trainees in their jobs. • relate the training to the trainees goals. • respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource. • encourage trainees to learn by doing. • give feedback on progress toward meeting learning objectives. Refresher training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organizing short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. • It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular descriptive. Cross-functional Training: Cross-functional Training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. There are many approaches to cross functional training. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functionalTraining
  • 10. 10 area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. Departments can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how other departments are functioning. High performing workers can act as peer trainers and help employees develop skills in another area of operation. Cross functional training provides the following benefits to an organisation (and the workers as well) (1) Workers gain rich experience in handling diverse jobs; they become more adaptable and versatile (2) they can better engineer their own career paths (3) they not only know their job well but also understand how others are able to perform under a different set of constraints (4) A broader perspective increases workers understanding of the business and reduces the need for supervision (5) when workers can fill in for other workers who are absent, it is easier to use flexible scheduling, which is increasingly in demand as more employees want to spend more time with their families. Eli Lilly and Company (India), for example, encourages cross-functional movements to make the organisation equally attractive to both specialists and generalists. Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas; content tasks and group processes. Content tasks specify the teams goals such as cost control and problem solving. Group processes reflect the way members function as a team - for example how they interact with each other, how they sort out differences, how they participate etc. Companies are investing heavy amounts, nowadays, in training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. They are using outdoor experiential training techniques to develop teamwork and team spirit among their employees (such as scaling a mountain, preparing recipes for colleagues at a restaurant, sailing through uncharted waters, crossing a jungle etc.). The training basically throws light on (i) how members should communicate with each other (ii) how they have to cooperate and get ahead (iii) how they should deal with conflict-full situations (iv) how they should find their way, using collective wisdom and experience to good advantage. Creativity training: Companies like Mudra Communications, Titan Industries, Wipro encourage their employees to think unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box and devise unexpected solutions. • Postpone judgment: Dont reject any idea • Create alternative frames of reference • Break the boundary of thinking In creativity training, trainers often focus on three things: (a) Breaking away: In order to break away from restrictions, the trainee is expected to (i) identify the dominant ideas influencing his own thinking (ii) define the boundaries within which he is working (iii) bring the assumptions out into the open and challenge everything (b) Generate new ideas: To generate new ideas, the trainee should open up his mind; look at the problem from all possible angles and list as many alternativeTraining
  • 11. 11 approaches as possible. The trainee should allow his mind to wander over alternatives freely. Expose himself to new influences (people, articles, books, situations), switch over from one perspective to another, -arrange cross fertilization of ideas with other people and use analogies to spark off ideas. (c) Delaying judgement: To promote creative thinking, the trainee should not try to kill off ideas too quickly; they should be held back until he is able to generate as many ideas as possible. He should allow ideas to grow a little. Brainstorming (getting a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time) often helps in generating as many ideas as possible without pausing to evaluate them. It helps in releasing ideas, overcoming inhibitions, cross fertilising ideas and getting away from patterned thinking. Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace ¬race, gender, age, disabilities, lifestyles, culture, education, ideas and backgrounds - while designing a training programme. It aims to create better cross- cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firms employees. • The programme covers two things: (i) awareness building, which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity, and (ii) skill building, which offers the knowledge, skills and abilities required for working with people having varied backgrounds. Literacy Training: Inability to write, speak and work well with others could often come in the way of discharging duties, especially at the lower levels. Workers, in such situations, may fail to understand safety messages, appreciate the importance of sticking to rules, and commit avoidable mistakes. Functional illiteracy (low skill level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a firms productivity and competitiveness. Functional literacy programmes focus on the basic skills required to perform a job adequately and capitalise on most workers motivation to get help in a particular area. Tutorial programmes, home assignments, reading and writing exercises, simple mathematical tests, etc., are generally used in all company in-house programmes meant to improve the literacy levels of employees with weak reading, writing or arithmetic skills.TRAINING AS CONSULTANCYTraining consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving itstraining and development objectives.Estimation of Training OutsourcingIt has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customereducation, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education.The training consultancies offer various benefits such as: Training Courses that ConsultanciesOffer the various courses that consultancies offer are:Training
  • 12. 12 • Business Training Courses o Management Development  Conflict Management  Managing Diversity  Project Management  Stress Management  Time Management  Senior Management Workshops o Sales  Negotiation Skills  Sales Technique o Customer Care  Customer Care Training  Managing Customers o Human Resource  HR Administration  Induction Training  Recruitment & Selection  Successful Appraising o Personal Development Courses o Workshops on:  Assertive Skills  Building Confidence  Coping with Change  Interview Techniques  Maximize Potential o One to One Coaching  Focused entirely on personal objectives  Move forward at individual pace  Material used in tailor made to specific development Need  A strict code of confidentiality o Importance of Training Consultancies o It helps in enhancing company’s image o It helps in strengthening the team spirit o It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load o It helps in improving the work relations o It helps in developing focused and inspired staff o It leads to greater chances of success o Consultants can provide help on following areas: o Management Development o Team Building Leadership o Health & Safety Training o Interpersonal Skills o Sales TrainingTraining
  • 13. 13 Example: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.TRAINING AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThe HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between thetraining function and other management activity is also changing. The training anddevelopment activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are thedays, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now adays, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR,production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as apriority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such acompany has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise theprofile development activities in the organization.To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts ofHRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRMrequire careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long termeducation. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control theattrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personalgoals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skilldevelopment and covers a multitude of courses.ROLE OF HRD PROFESSIONALS IN TRAININGThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role ofHR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training Models of TrainingTraining is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales,HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transformingprocess that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills,and attitudes (KSAs).Training
  • 14. 14U2Need assessment methodTraining DesignThe design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective hasbeen produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of trainingprogram i.e., what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Trainingobjective assists trainers to design the training program.The Trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal,judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.The Trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors thataffect training design.Training
  • 15. 15Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positiveperception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goeswrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background oftrainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it intospecific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must beincluded, what could be included.Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered.Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are thenclassified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: • From simple to complex • Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance • From known to unknown • From specific to general • Dependent relationshipTraining tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear,trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. Themethod selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees’ background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etcSupport facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirementsin a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: T Time T Accommodation, facilities and their availability T Furnishings and equipments T Budget T Design of the training, etcTHE TRAINING SYSTEMTraining
  • 16. 16A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particularfunction. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach canbe used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logicalrelationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA),formulating, delivering, and evaluating.There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system toproduce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs inorder to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’srequirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. Thisapproach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach,training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of fivesteps is system model that is explained below.Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces,that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces whichmay impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are thevarious demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date withthe latest technologies.The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional modelSystem modelThe system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to makefurther improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to performtheir work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employeesrequirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc Thenext step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance wouldbe evaluated.2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectivesof training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist theparticipants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validatingTraining
  • 17. 17information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failureof whole training program.5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent workperformance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy orimprove failure practices.Instructional System Development modelInstructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the trainingproblems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned withthe training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of jobresponsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progressis measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies,sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audienceanalysis.2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructionalobjectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material,media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies toimpart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists ofdeveloping course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids,demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other trainingaccessories.5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program hasachieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifyingstrengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage inorder to remedy or improve failure practices.The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It alsohighlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In thismodel, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.Transitional modelTraining
  • 18. 18Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision,mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop isexecuted.Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the definedpoint of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down theline. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or maybe promising to meet some other deadlines.Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in thecommunity. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform theemployees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how theorganization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeplyheld values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example,values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers theorganization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and thenthe training model is further implemented.U3Methods of TrainingThere are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioralmethods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact ontrainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methodsunder Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbalinformation, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated withchanges in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: Lectures The various methodsthat come underCOGNITIVE APPROACHES ARE:Training
  • 19. 19  Lectures  Demonstrations  Discussions  Computer based training (CBT) o Intelligent tutorial system(ITS) o Programmed instruction (PI) o Virtual realityLectures It is one of the old method of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitude through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspects of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Some of the main features of lecture method are: • Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings • Less expensive • Can be reached large number of people at once • Knowledge building exercise • Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivityDemonstration Training Method This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job.In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method.Training
  • 20. 20 To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer. • Demonstrates the task by describing, how to do, while doing. • Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task • Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them • Explains why it should be carried out in that way The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur. The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows: • Cost of training facility for the program • Cost of materials that facilitate training • Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers • Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees • Cost related to creating content, material • Cost related to the organization of the training After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.Discussion Training Method This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the discussion method is used with proper sequences i.e., lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning. The discussion method consist a two way flow of communication i.e., knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is converted back by trainees to trainer. Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner.Training
  • 21. 21 Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in improving recall.Computer Based Training With the world wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals. o Some of the benefits of Computer Based Training are: o According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but has become the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face to face interaction with a human trainer. This method is so varied in its applications that it is difficult to describe in concise terms. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: o INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) o PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) o VIRTUAL REALITYIntelligent Tutorial System This intelligent tutorial system uses artificial intelligence to assists in training or tutoring the participants. This system learns through trainee responses. Features of Intelligent tutorial systems (ITC) • It selects the appropriate level of instructions for the participants. • It guides the trainees • It is a text based system • It also evaluate the training program • It also improves the methodology for teaching the trainee based on the information • It is an interactive system • It determines the trainee’s level of understanding Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) comprises of 5 components:Training
  • 22. 22 1. A domain expert also called the expert knowledge base 2. A trainee model – stores the information on how the trainee is performing during the training program 3. A scenario generator 4. A training session manager – interprets trainees responses and responds either with tutoring, more content or information 5. A user interface – allows the trainee to communicate with the Intelligent tutorial SystemProgrammed Instruction Programmed instruction is a computer-based training that comprises of graphics, multimedia, text that is connected to one another and is stored in memory. Programmed instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. It provides the participants with content, information, ask questions, and based on the answer goes to the trainee forward to the new information. And if the trainee gives the wrong answer then different branch is activated, taking the trainee back to the review relevant information in more elaborate manner. This method allows the trainees to go through the content according to the individual speed, and capability. Those trainees, who respond better, move through the content rapidly. Programmed Instruction also comes in • Printed form i.e. books • Tape • Interactive Video • Other formats In programmed instruction, trainees receive information in substantial amount and then tested on their retention of information. If the trainees are not able to retain the information, they are referred back to the original information. If the trainees retain the information, they are referred to the next log of information that is to be learned. Some of the features of programmed instructions are: • It provides immediate feedback to trainee response • It frequently reviews the content • It programs small learning steps that results in fewer response errors • It allows trainees to move through the content at their own speed, or capability • It requires frequent active responses by the traineesVirtual RealityTraining
  • 23. 23 Virtual reality is a training method that puts the participants in 3-D environment. The three dimensional environment stimulates situations and events that are experienced in the job. The participants intercat with 3-D images to accomplish the training objectives. These types of environment are created to give trainee the impression of physical involvement in an environment. To experience virtual reality, the trainee wears devices, like headset, gloves, treadmills, etc. Virtual reality provides trainees with an understanding of their actions in the work environment by interpreting and responding to the trainee’s actions through its accessories. • Headset - Provides audio and visual information • Gloves – provides tactile information • Treadmills – is used for creating the sense of movement • Sensory devices – transmits how the trainees are responding in the virtual workplace to the computer this allows the virtual reality (VR) system to respond by changing the environment appropriately. Some of the features of Virtual Reality System are: • It is poorly understood – requires technical understanding • It is expensive • It is time consuming • It is flexible in nature • It does not incur traveling, lodging, or food cost • It requires excellent infrastructureBEHAVIORAL METHODSBehavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methodsunder Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods arebest used for skill development.The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: The various methods that comeunder Behavioral approach are:  Games And Simulations o Behavior-Modeling o Business Games o Case Studies o Equipment Stimulators o In-Basket Technique o Role PlaysGames and SimulationsTraining
  • 24. 24Games and stimulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played forenjoyment sometimes are used for training purpose as an educational tool. Training games andsimulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events,circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job.A training game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with eachother according to the defined set of rules.Simulation is creating computer version of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating ormaking judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, orcombinations.Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its keycomponents are: • Challenge • Rules • InteractivityThese three components are quite essential when it comes to learning.Some of the examples of this technique are:Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting wherethey can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve theirperformance.The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:Behavior Modeling Behavior Modeling uses the innate inclination for people to observe others to discover how to do something new. It is more often used in combination with some other techniques. Procedure of Behavior Modeling Technique In this method, some kind of process or behavior is videotaped and then is watched by the trainees. Games and simulation section is also included because once the trainees see the videotape, they practice the behavior through role plays or other kind of simulation techniques. The trainee first observes the behavior modeled in the video and then reproduces the behavior on the job. • The skills that are required to build up are defined • A brief overview of the theory is then provided to the trainersTraining
  • 25. 25 • Then, trainees are given instructions that what specific learning points or critical behavior they have to watch • Then the expert is used to model the suitable behaviors • Then, the trainees are encouraged to practice the suitable behavior in a role play or through any other method of simulation • Trainees are then provided with some opportunities to give reinforcement for appropriate imitation of the model’s behavior • In the end, trainer ensures that trainees appropriately reinforces the behavior on the work place Behavior modeling focuses on developing behavioral and interpersonal skills. This type of method can be used for training in • Sales training • Interviewee training • Interviewer training • Safety training • Interpersonal skills training With the increase in globalization and changing technologies, many organizations are now moving from board games to computer based simulations, using interactive multimedia (IM) and virtual reality (VR).Business games Business games are the type of simulators that try to present the way an industry, company, organization, consultancy, or subunit of a company functions. Basically, they are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In the business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favor of the company. And then the system provides the feedback about the impact of their decisions Again, on the basis of the feedback they are asked to make the decisions again. This process continues until some meaningful results do not came out or some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified number of trails are completed. As an example, if the focus is on organizations financial state, the game may end when the organization reach at desirable or defined profitability level. Some of the benefits of the business games are: • It develops leadership skills • It improves application of total quality principles • It develops skills in using quality tools • It strengthen management skills • It demonstrates principles and conceptsTraining
  • 26. 26 • It explores and solves complex problem Many games and simulations examine the total organization but only some focus on the functional responsibilities of specific positions in an organization. Business games simulate whole organization and provide much better perspective than any other training methods. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the related areas.Case Studies Case Studies try to simulate decision making situation that trainees may find at their work place. It reflects the situations and complex problems faced by managers, staff, HR, CEO, etc. The objective of the case study method is to get trainees to apply known concepts and ideologies and ascertain new ones. The case study method emphasize on approach to see a particular problem rather than a solution. Their solutions are not as important as the understanding of advantages and disadvantages. Procedure of the Case Study Method • The trainee is given with some written material, and the some complex situations of a real or imaginary organization. A case study may range from 50 to 200 pages depending upon the problem of the organization. • A series of questions usually appears at the end of the case study. • The longer case studies provide enough of the information to be examined while the shorter ones require the trainee to explore and conduct research to gather appropriate amount of information. • The trainee then makes certain judgment and opines about the case by identifying and giving possible solutions to the problem. • In between trainees are given time to digest the information. If there is enough time left, they are also allowed to collect relevant information that supports their solution. • Once the individuals reach the solution of a problem, they meet in small groups to discuss the options, solutions generated. • Then, the trainee meets with the trainer, who further discusses the case. Case Study method focuses on: • Building decision making skills • Assessing and developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) • Developing communication and interpersonal skills • Developing management skills • Developing procedural and strategic knowledgeEquipment simulatorsTraining
  • 27. 27 Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat, as closely as possible, the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation. Besides that, the mental conditions under which the equipment is operated such as, increasing demands, pressure of time, and relationship with colleagues, subordinates, etc must also be closely matched to what the trainees experience on the work place. The literature on socio-technical approaches to organizational development provides guidelines for the design or redesign of tools. Human Resource professionals involved in propose of simulators and their pre-testing should engage those who will be using the equipment and their supervisors. Their input can help in reducing the potential resistance, errors in the equipment and more importantly, it also increases the degree of reliability between the simulation and the work setting. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: • Air Traffic Controllers • Taxi Drivers • Telephone Operators • Ship Navigators • Maintenance Workers • Product Development Engineers • Airline Pilots • Military OfficersIn-Basket Technique It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. Procedure of the In basket Technique • In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. • The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. • After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes placeTraining
  • 28. 28 In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably. A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in baskets in which each trainee receives a different but organized set of information. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information required to make a suitable decision. This technique focuses on: • Building decision making skills • Assess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) • Develops of communication and interpersonal skills • Develops procedural knowledge • Develops strategic knowledgeRole play It is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. For instance, situation could be strike in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once the participants read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Role Plays helps in • Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills • Conflict resolution • Group decision making • Developing insight into one’s own behavior and its impact on othersThere are various types of role plays, such as:Multiple Role Play – In this type of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group actingout the role play simultaneously. After the role play, each group analyzes the interactions andidentifies the learning points.Single Role Play – One group of participants plays the role for the rest, providingdemonstrations of situation. Other participants observe the role play, analyze their interactionswith one another and learn from the play.Training
  • 29. 29Role Rotation – It starts as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer willstop the role play and discuss what happened so far. Then the participants are asked to exchangecharacters. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles.Spontaneous Role Play – In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while theother trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before.Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD –MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT –The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. Tobecome a better performer by education implies that management development activities attemptto instill sound reasoning processes.Management development method is further divided into two parts:ON THE JOB TRAININGThe development of a managers abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for onthe job development are: • Coaching • Mentoring • Job Rotation • Job Instruction Technique (JIT) 1. Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because • It is one to one interaction • It can be done at the convenience of CEO • It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat • It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert • It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews. Procedure of the CoachingTraining
  • 30. 30 The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves For the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement. 2. Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. Some key points on Mentoring • Mentoring focus on attitude development • Conducted for management-level employees • Mentoring is done by someone inside the company • It is one-to-one interaction • It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement 3. Job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where theTraining
  • 31. 31 supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: • It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries • Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required • It determines the areas where improvement is required • Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position 4. Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development. Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT) JIT consists of four steps: • Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc.Training
  • 32. 32 • Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions. • Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. • Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing.OFF THE JOB TRAININGThere are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job.The few popular methods are:  Sensitivity Training  Transactional Analysis  Straight Lectures/ Lectures  Simulation Exercises Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. • Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. • Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. Procedure of Sensitivity Training Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps: Unfreezing the old values –It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure: • An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed. • Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance • But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadershipTraining
  • 33. 33 • Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty • Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees • Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation Development of new values – With the trainer’s support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.Transactional Analysis It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual.An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states: Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like "I guess", "I suppose", etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc. Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc. Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.Training