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Emotion Chapter 11 William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005
Summary <ul><li>A human being is inherently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biological. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioned by th...
What and Why of Emotions <ul><li>A subjective sensation experienced as a type of psycho-physiological arousal </li></ul><u...
What is the Value of Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine personal viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What is the Value of Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largely a conscious phenomena  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James-Lange theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Theories of Emotions
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James-Lange theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannon-Bard theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Theories of Emotions
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannon-Bard theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schachter-Singer theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><...
Theories of Emotions
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schachter-Singer theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><...
Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lazarus theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Body/Physical  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heart...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Thoughts (observed indirectly through) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spoken and written word...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Behavior  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facial expressions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activ...
Emotion and the Brain <ul><li>Emotion associated with the limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>The brain structure most closely...
<ul><li>Researchers using electro-encephalographs to track mood changes have found that reductions in both anxiety and dep...
Basic Emotions <ul><li>Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insist that there are a limited number of basic ...
Plutchik  Three-dimensional Circumplex Model
Protypical Behavior
Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Range of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ekman and Friesen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clai...
Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Universality of facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Universality of facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scherer and Wallbott </li></ul></ul...
Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Cultural rules for displaying emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display rule </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Cultural rules for displaying emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Davis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sylvan Tomkins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ekman and colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Izard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believ...
Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Gender differences in experiencing emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research by evolutionary psy...
Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Emotion and cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion allows us to detect risk more quickly tha...
Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discern one’s own emotional states  ...
Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of gestures to display emotional me...
Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional regulation and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coping with both pleasur...
Triangular Theory of Love <ul><li>Robert Sternberg’s theory that three components – intimacy, passion, and decision/commit...
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  • Transcript of "05emotion"

    1. 1. Emotion Chapter 11 William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005
    2. 2. Summary <ul><li>A human being is inherently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biological. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioned by the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gathering data about the world through the senses and organizing that data </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What and Why of Emotions <ul><li>A subjective sensation experienced as a type of psycho-physiological arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Result from the interaction of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perception of environmental stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neural & hormonal responses to perceptions (feelings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a cognitive appraisal of the situation arousing the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an outward expression of the state </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What is the Value of Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine personal viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prepare us for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shape our behavior (emotions are reinforcing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate communication nonverbally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate adult-child relations and thus development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make life worth living by adding value to experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow us to respond flexibly to our environment (approaching good, avoiding bad) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What is the Value of Emotion? <ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largely a conscious phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involve more bodily manifestations than other conscious states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vary along a number of dimensions: intensity, type, origin, arousal, value, self-regulation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are reputed to be “antagonists of rationality.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a central place in moral education and moral life through conscience, empathy, and many specific moral emotions such as shame, guilt, and remorse; inextrictably linked to moral virtues </li></ul></ul>See de Sousa, R. (2003). Emotion . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/
    6. 6. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James-Lange theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Theories of Emotions
    8. 8. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James-Lange theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires separate and distinct physiological activity for each emotion </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannon-Bard theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cortex, providing the feeling of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Theories of Emotions
    11. 11. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannon-Bard theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cortex, providing the feeling of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive labeling and action would follow consciousness of feeling and physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schachter-Singer theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A two-stage theory stating that for an emotion to occur, there must be (1) physiological arousal and (2) an explanation for the arousal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Theories of Emotions
    14. 14. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schachter-Singer theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A two-stage theory stating that for an emotion to occur, there must be (1) physiological arousal and (2) an explanation for the arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for subjective interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not account for specific physiological states associated with some emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Theories of Emotions <ul><li>Theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lazarus theory of emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus triggers a cognitive appraisal, which is followed by the emotion and the physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three aspects of appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary (relevance) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary (options) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reappraisal (anything changed) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Body/Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adrenaline levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle activity when smiling, frowning, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neural images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tears, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lie detector readings </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Thoughts (observed indirectly through) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spoken and written words on rating scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>answers to open-ended questions on surveys and during interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responses to projective instruments, sentence stems, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-assessments or perceptions regarding the behavior and intentions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other cognitive operations such as rational/logical thinking </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Three Ways to Measure Emotion <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alertness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>screaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>aggression </li></ul><ul><li>approach/avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>attention/distraction </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>anhedonia </li></ul>
    19. 19. Emotion and the Brain <ul><li>Emotion associated with the limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>The brain structure most closely associated with fear is the amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>When the emotion of fear first materializes, much of the brain’s processing is nonconscious </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Researchers using electro-encephalographs to track mood changes have found that reductions in both anxiety and depression are associated with a shift in electrical activity from the left to the right side of the brain </li></ul>Emotion and the Brain
    21. 21. Basic Emotions <ul><li>Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insist that there are a limited number of basic emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions that are found in all cultures, that are reflected in the same facial expressions across cultures, and that emerge in children according to their biological timetable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ekman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested considering emotions as families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The anger family might range from annoyed to irritated, angry, livid, and, finally, enraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If perceived as a family, anger should also include various forms of its expression </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Plutchik Three-dimensional Circumplex Model
    23. 23. Protypical Behavior
    24. 24. Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Range of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ekman and Friesen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claim there are subtle distinctions in the facial expression of a single emotion that convey its intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the motor skills of crawling and walking, facial expressions of emotions develop according to a biological timetable of maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency of emotional development across individual infants and across cultures supports the idea that emotional expression is inborn </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Universality of facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to study the relationship between emotions and facial expressions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that the facial expression of emotion was an aid to survival because it enabled people to communicate their internal states and react to emergencies before they developed language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained that most emotions, and the facial expressions that convey them, are genetically inherited and characteristic of the entire human species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded that facial expressions were similar across cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Universality of facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scherer and Wallbott </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found very extensive overlap in the patterns of emotional experiences reported across cultures in 37 different counties on 5 continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also found important cultural differences in the ways emotions are elicited and regulated and in how they are shared socially </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Cultural rules for displaying emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural rules that dictate how emotions should be expressed and when and where their expression is appropriate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often, a society’s display rules require people to give evidence of certain emotions that they may not actually feel or to disguise their true feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found that 3-year-old girls, when given an unattractive gift, smiled nevertheless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They had already learned a display rule and signaled an emotion they very likely did not feel </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Expression of Emotion <ul><li>Cultural rules for displaying emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Davis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found that among first to third graders, girls were better able to hide disappointment than boys were </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only can emotions be displayed but not felt, they can also be felt but not displayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of us learn display rules very early and abide by them most of the time </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sylvan Tomkins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed that the facial expression itself – that is, the movement of the facial muscles producing the expression – triggers both the physiological arousal and the conscious feeling associated with the emotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea that the muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions trigger the corresponding emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ekman and colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documented the effects of facial expressions on physiological indicators of emotion using 16 participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reported that a distinctive physiological response pattern emerged for the emotions of fear, sadness, anger, and disgust, whether the participants relived one of their emotional experiences or simply made the corresponding facial expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher found that both anger and fear accelerate heart rate, but fear produces colder fingers than does anger </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Izard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believes that learning to self-regulate emotional expression can help in controlling emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposes that this approach to the regulation of emotion might be a useful adjunct to psychotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender differences in experiencing emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Buss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has reported that women are far more likely to feel anger when their partner is sexually aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men experience greater anger than women when their partner withholds sex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Gender differences in experiencing emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research by evolutionary psychologists also suggests clear and consistent differences between the sexes concerning feelings of jealousy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men, more than women, experience jealousy over evidence or suspicions of sexual infidelity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A women is more likely than a man to be jealous of her partner’s emotional attachment and commitment to another and over the attention, time, and resources diverted from the relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Experiencing Emotion <ul><li>Emotion and cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion allows us to detect risk more quickly than we could with rational thought alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible that the anger-optimism link arises from confidence, whether justified or not, in concrete measures directed towards people who are perceived as potentially threatening </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discern one’s own emotional states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discern other’s emotional states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>properly use emotional vocabulary. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of gestures to display emotional messages nonverbally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate empathy by connecting one’s emotions to those of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>display both self-conscious as well as complex social emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing between experiencing an emotion and action </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Fostering Emotional Functioning <ul><li>Emotional regulation and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coping with both pleasurable and aversive/distressing emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation of those situations that elicit emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to use an experience to strategically organize the experience in terms of setting goals and learning to motivate oneself and others </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Triangular Theory of Love <ul><li>Robert Sternberg’s theory that three components – intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment – singly and in various combinations produce seven different kinds of love: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liking (I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infatuated love (P) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty love (C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic love (I, P) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatuous love (C, P) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companionate love (C, I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consummate love (I, C, P) </li></ul></ul></ul>
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