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  1. 1. United Nations Educational, Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization Conflict-Sensitive Reporting: State of the Art A Course for Journalists and Journalism Educators By Ross Howard
  2. 2. Conflict-Sensitive Reporting: State of the Art A Course for Journalists and Journalism Educators By Ross Howard
  3. 3. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of UNESCO. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, city or area or of its authori- ties, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. Published in 2009 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP Composed and printed in the workshops of UNESCO Cover photo by Dominique Roger © UNESCO 2009 Printed in France CI-2009/WS/5 (3069.9)
  4. 4. Table of contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Recognizing the media role in conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Curriculum outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Detailed curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5. Notes for trainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. Case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7. Practical resources for a curriculum in conflict-sensitive reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
  5. 5. Preface Media play an increasingly important role in today’s society. We know that freedom of expression and freedom of the press is having a clear bearing on development, democracy and dialogue. The free flow of information should not be hindered; on the contrary the media should have all the nec- essary space to contribute to disseminate information and knowledge with the objective of deve- loping inclusive knowledge societies. At the same time journalists and editors must demonstrate their professionalism. Ethical and pro- fessional standards are required to make the best out of the pivotal role good journalism plays in today’s societies. A key issue in this context is the way the media deal with conflicts. Unfortunately our world is still marked by a high number of conflicts and by the consequences of natural disasters. The media must report on these and their reporting should comply with high ethical and profes- sional standards. In the past we have seen terrifying examples of how media have functioned in an inciting and inflammatory manner contributing to fuel conflict and civil war. It is with the objective to strengthen the capacity of media professionals to report in a well researched, factual and non-biased way, and without contributing to conflict that UNESCO has asked Ross Howard to develop this curriculum for Conflict-Sensitive Reporting. It is intended to strengthen media’s capacity to contribute to dialogue, mutual understanding and eventually reconciliation and peace. I hope that this book will be used by journalism educators and by journalists all over the world. For the sake of peace, for development, and for the sake of democracy this is imperative. Abdul Waheed Khan Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information UNESCO 1
  6. 6. 1. Introduction: About this study In much of the world, the violent conflict that the education and training. Traditional journal- media must report on has changed. It is increas- ism skills development has not included study ingly not traditional warfare between nations of how best to cover violent conflict, and has but now is violent strife among people within ignored any understanding of violent conflict common or rough borders, often between as a social process. Other subjects demand that communities and tribes and other interests. journalists have knowledge and expertise and Violent conflict is increasingly a lawless and ter- experience, such as reporting on business and rifying exploitation of civilians and resources by economics, public health, music, sports, or other poorly-trained soldiers or paramilitary forces or topics. But the dynamics of violent conflict – its private armies engaged in crime to sustain their instigation, development and resolution – are violence. State authority and the rule of law are not much understood by most journalists nor weak or collapsed. The low-intensity violence proficiently reported on. In today’s increasingly recurs erratically. The news media, with its new changed environment of conflict more and technologies and wider reach, is increasingly a more journalists find themselves ill-equipped target for misinformation, manipulation or sup- to address the issue which demands so much pression by interests seeking to profit from the of their attention and is devastating their com- violent conflict. munity. Too much, the news media is accused of being part of the problem of conflict. Nothing more clearly confirms the relationship between the news media and violent conflict Working journalists in conflict-stressed coun- than the contradiction between two current tries are more acutely aware than colleagues in trends. The number of acute violent conflicts established democracies that as journalists and around the world fortunately is declining.1 But as citizens their work may seem insufficient, the number of journalists killed in those con- superficial and possibly harmful. “We cover it flict-stressed places and elsewhere has sharply (conflict) simplistically, vividly, incessantly but risen.2 Journalists are increasingly targets of we do not cover it with sophistication. We don’t war-mongers because of the media’s potential cover causes, only consequences, and we don’t to influence the course of conflict resolution. cover solutions,” says media development spe- cialist Marie-Soleil Frere,3 quoting journalists in Much of the news media’s approach to report- Africa. ing on conflict, however, has not changed. Conflict is a curious blind spot in journalism The need for some new approaches to report- ing on violent conflict seems clear, especially to 1 Human Security Centre, Human Security Report, University of journalists in the most conflict-stressed places. British Columbia. Vancouver. 2005. Available at: http://www. humansecurityreport.info/index.php?option=content&task= Among journalism trainers consulted for this view&id=112. study several said that when the opportunity 2 International News Safety Institute, Journalists targeted. January 2009. Available at: http://www.newssafety.com/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11176&cat id=314&Itemid=100077. 3 Frere, Marie-Soleil, Research Associate, Department of See also: Puddephatt, Andrew, Conflict and the Role of the Information and Communication Sciences, Free University of Media, International Media Support. Copenhagen. 2006. Brussels. Interview. 2008. 3
  7. 7. for reflection arises, journalism trainees often to report on conflict without inflaming it – request techniques for reporting on conflict in journalists can more confidently report on con- their community. flict without compromising their principles. Part of being a reliable provider of information The news media’s traditional role is often said is not to advocate what should happen but to to be to serve the public interest by being a reveal what can happen, including peace. reliable information provider, a forum for free speech and a watchdog of government.4 In For more than a decade some journalism train- their hearts many journalists believe their work ers, instructors and researchers have attempted can help make the world a better place. But in to develop training methodologies and content environments where such roles seem to make that responds to the need for more sophistica- little difference to the perpetual cycle of vio- tion among journalists reporting on conflict, lence, there is understandable frustration and especially in conflict-stressed states. A handful disillusionment among journalists and their of course outlines, training modules and pam- supporters. phlets and books on conflict reporting have emerged, alongside the more rapid recognition In response, some well-intentioned jour- in the wider world of peacebuilding research nalists, academics and peace researchers that the quality of journalism is integral to the propose a new practice of reporting that process of conflict resolution. consciously works for peace and engages reporters in the roles of advocacy. But that This study begins with an examination of response puts at risk those traditional roles that recognition of journalism’s role in peace- and first principles that assure journalism building. The study then examines attempts any legitimacy among most citizens. It is to define journalism’s role and appropriate news media’s independence and objectivity practices related to conflict resolution. And it that gives journalists’ work its credibility and presents a curriculum or course outline for an its influence in informing people who must adaptable training programme to respond, as make changes themselves towards peaceful best possible, to the expressed and perceived resolution of their conflicts. needs of journalists reporting on violent con- flict, especially within their own communities, Instead of taking on more roles, journalism in countries and regions. conflict-stressed zones must strengthen its original roles. What is needed is some of that This study also includes Field Notes or obser- sophistication in reporting that Marie-Soleil vations and recommendations for any train- Frere’s colleagues spoke of. With some under- ers or course leaders presenting the course standing of conflict – why it turns violent, what in Conflict-Sensitive Reporting in a conflict- are common causes, what motivates war-mon- stressed environment. gers and peace-makers and ordinary citizens, how societies resolve their conflicts without It also includes Case Histories, describing violence, who speaks of such things, and how two very recent initiatives to present conflict- 4 Puddephatt, Andrew, Defining Indicators of Media Development, UNESCO. Paris. 2007. Available at: http://www.ifap.ru/library/ book247.pdf. 4
  8. 8. sensitive reporting training in violence-stressed guides to a rudimentary understanding of states, Kenya and Somalia. conflict and conflict resolution and the news media’s role. The curriculum is a preliminary And it includes a Resources List of several essen- sensitization, an introduction to the sub- tial documents for course leaders to refer to in stantive field of conflict analysis and conflict search of further guidance in both concepts resolution that has developed over more and practices, examples of training modules than a half-century. The intention is to make and other resources in developing Conflict- reporting on conflict more insightful, more Sensitive Reporting training initiatives. comprehensive and thus more influential, since being comprehensive includes making The concepts and techniques described clearer the possibilities of resolving conflict in the curriculum are intended to provide rather than perpetuating it. 5
  9. 9. 2. Recognizing the media role in conflict For more than 30 years agencies of develop- Many of these assumptions and assertions ment and peace such as UNESCO and indi- have been proven well-founded.7 Hundreds vidual countries have dedicated attention and of millions of dollars (US) cumulatively have funding to capacity-building among journal- been devoted to international aid for news ists and news media outlets in states in transi- media development,8 most of it for training tion. Much of the underlying rationale for the and education and in some cases for material training reflected the Western libertarian view and equipment. An early example is the large of the news media as a non-partisan and inde- effort of USAID in Latin America in the 1980s, pendent institution that enables well-informed followed later by USAID initiatives in the former citizen decision-making by providing informa- Soviet Union.9 tion, serving as a forum for free expression, and keeping government accountable. Support for media development accelerated with the decline of Cold War structures and Many of these capacity-building initiatives attitudes.10 Success in integrating media-based were motivated by the belief that a reliable programmes into humanitarian relief and news media – meaning accurate, neutral and health, agriculture and education programmes responsible in its reporting and methods – increased interest in what media could do for would contribute to achieving good govern- democratization. The removal of Cold War bar- ance5 and democratic development, and be riers enabled greater dissemination of news an indirect support for human development.6 to previously inaccessible audiences. It also As part of their neutrality or objectivity, media allowed media development initiatives in pre- workers were considered professionally disen- viously totalitarian countries. gaged from the outcome of their work. It was assumed that the strengthened local media Technological advances gave the electronic would broaden and deepen the information media an almost global ubiquity and capacity and the debate that citizens need to live their to reach most remote places with economically lives and make important decisions about who affordable reception. governs for them. 7 Norris, Pippa, The Role of the Free Press in Promoting Democratization, Good Governance and Human develop- ment, in Media Matters. Perspectives on Advancing Governance and Development from the Global Forum for Media Development. 5 Graves, Peter, Independent Media’s Vital Role in Development, Internews Europe. Paris. 2007. Centre for International Media Assistance. Washington. 2007. 8 Puddephatt, Andrew, citing Ellen Hume, in Defining Indicators 6 Norris, Pippa and Dieter Zinnbauer, Giving Voice to the of Media Development, UNESCO. Paris. 2007. Available at: Voiceless: Good Governance, Human Development & Mass http://www.ifap.ru/library/book247.pdf. Communications, UNDP Human Development Report Office. 9 See: Krishna, Kumar, Promoting Independent media, strategies 2002. (available at: http://hdr.undp.org/docs/publications/ for democracy assistance. Lynne Rienner. Boulder. 2006. background_papers/2002/Norris-Zinnbauer_2002.pdf. And: 10 See: Howard, Ross, International Media Assistance. A Review of Abbott, Susan, Media Development: The Case for Research, in Donor Activities and Lessons Learned, Netherlands Institute of Media Matters, ibid. International Relations. The Hague. 2003. 6
  10. 10. The words peacebuilding or conflict resolution European Union included media development rarely came into descriptions of the early media within their strategies for regional develop- development initiatives. Accelerated democra- ment. UNESCO became a leading multinational tization was the commonly stated objective, as supporter of media development in a myriad of in the United Nations’ first inclusion of a major forms. media development initiative in its support of the democratic transition of Cambodia in 1992. Most media developers today are independ- On occasion, news media development was ent non-governmental organizations with included within multi-faceted and multi-lateral state, international institutions’ or foundation responses to conflict in certain states, including funding. Most of them distance their journal- the former Yugoslavia. But news media devel- ism development from their funders’ political opment was generally not seen as a specific or peacebuilding policies to avoid journalistic and integral element of multilateral conflict conflict of interest with what may be involved resolution. in those programs. As reiterated recently in a United States Institute of Peace paper on devel- Non-governmental organizations with a spe- oping media in stabilization and reconstruction cialization in media development emerged operations, “efforts to develop local media insti- including Fondation Hirondelle, the Baltic Media tutions should be undertaken separately from Centre, Internews, IREX, the Media Institute of attempts to develop (foreign policy) strategic Southern Africa, International Media Support, communications.”12 Institute for War and Peace Reporting, the International Centre for Journalism, the Panos In the mid 1990s new considerations emerged Institutes, and charitable arms of media corpo- about media development that specifically rations such as the Thomson Foundation and directed attention to the news media’s role in Reuters Foundation and philanthropists such as latent or overt conflict and in conflict resolution. Soros Foundation and the Knight Foundation. One impetus for this new focus was the clearly In addition, some state media corporations such negative role of the media in major social catas- as Radio Netherlands and BBC World Service trophes, such as the incitement and direction Trust and Deutsche Welle included independ- played by indigenous media in the genocidal ent media development initiatives within their killings in Rwanda in 1994,13 and in policies mandate. Today the media development com- and acts of ethnic cleansing in the former munity numbers at least several hundred Yugoslavia.14 It was realized that states with organizations.11 authoritarian governments and proliferating media could make untrained or irresponsible A number of Western countries began including journalists more liable to participate in manipu- specified funding for media development within their international aid strategies. Conferences, alliances and task forces of states such as the 12 Bajaktari, Yll and Hsu, Emily, Developing Media in Stabilization Organization of the Islamic Conference, the and Reconstruction Operations, USIP. Washington. 2007. Stability Pact for Southeast Europe and the 13 Des Forges, Alison, Call to Genocide. Radio in Rwanda 1994, International Research Development Centre. Downloaded Nov. 2008 at: http://www.idrc.ca/rwandagenocide/ev-108178 -201-1-DO_TOPIC.html. 11 See: Global Forum for Media development, at: 14 Thompson, Mark, Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Luton: University of Luton Press, =com_content&task=view&id=26&Itemid=64. 1999). 7
  11. 11. lating public opinion for gross abuse of human with reference to Africa,17 many of the conflicts rights and the reversal of democratization. today do not involve professionalized and insti- tutionalized armies but a multiplicity of factions Attention turned to exploring an opposite and ill-assorted militias recruited to exploit a potential of the news media, that is, to influence country’s resources and people. Few NGOs or public opinion and behaviour towards non-vio- international actors feel secure in introducing a lent conflict resolution. The influence was not news media initiative directly into such violent necessarily defined as direct, or was expressed environments, and prefer to await at least a informally and as an indirect benefit. But inde- truce or the end of the conflict. pendent media development NGOs began to deliver media development initiatives which But media development initiatives have been focused on skills development but included launched in a number of states suffering the issues of conflict, reporters’ responses and ongoing, intermittent or extended deadly con- responsibilities, and possible influences on flict including Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the conflict resolution. An early example is the Philippines, Timor Leste, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Reporting for Peace program, developed by and Afghanistan. Usually but not always the Peter du Toit and Alison Campbell for Internews work is conducted among media workers and in Rwanda in 1995. The programme was outlets within government-held areas rather repeated in Indonesia beginning in 1998, and than among media under the control of insur- elsewhere later. Its central point as defined by gents. In Iraq, for example, media development du Toit is that “while the media does not inde- initiatives have been hampered by factional pendently direct the course a conflict will take, violence, insurgency and censorship by numer- journalists can play a meaningful role in creat- ous interests including the occupying foreign ing conducive conditions for conflict resolu- forces. There are also media developments ini- tion. In doing so they will necessarily perform tiatives underway in countries with an overt the most widely recognized roles of a journalist hostility to democratization, such as some in providing people with information, enabling states in the Caucasus and Central Asia. them to make informed decisions and educat- ing them about the different processes involved Many media development initiatives today refer in resolving conflict.” 15 in their programme descriptions to at least their indirect benefits for conflict avoidance and reso- Donors and media intervenors with an interest lution, or peacebuilding. It is a logical enough in media and peacebuilding initially focused assertion: a reliable, independent and diverse on post-conflict environments of countries media assuredly enables societies to better damaged by civil wars or other intensive con- resolve their conflicts without violence. However, flict.16 And that remains the dominant mode most programmes do not assert conflict resolu- of media development initiatives related to tion is the direct outcome of media development, peacebuilding. As Marie-Soleil Frere observes and instead emphasize capacity-building. On at least two occasions, however, the rela- 15 Du Toit, Peter, African Media and Conflict: a view from South Africa by Peter du Toit. Conciliation Resources. Annual Report tionship between the working journalist and 1999. 16 De Zeeuw, Jereoen and Krishna, Kumar, Promoting democ- racy in post-conflict societies. Lynne Rienner. Boulder/London. 17 Frere, Marie-Soleil, The media and conflicts in Central Africa, 2006. Lynne Rienner. Boulder/London. 2007. 8
  12. 12. conflict resolution was expressed in terms considerations reached wider circulation follow- which some took to be normative, or obliga- ing assertions from some Western journalists tory responsibilities of the job. In 1978 the Mass returned from reporting on widespread ethnic Media Declaration of UNESCO, Article 3, spoke cleansing in the former Yugoslavia, who argued of the mass media having “an important con- professional disengagement was ill-serving tribution to the strengthening of peace.” 18 The humanity. As a consequence of the atrocities International Principles of Ethics in Journalism they witnessed “some felt it would be irrespon- adopted in the 1983 UNESCO consultative sible not to use the influence they might possess meeting of journalism organizations further [through their reporting] to secure a particular stated that a “true journalist stands for … peace, outcome for the war.”20 democracy, human rights … and participates actively and contributes through dialogue to One such journalist, Martin Bell of the BBC, called a climate … conducive of peace and justice for a “journalism of attachment”21 which goes everywhere.”19 A number of professional asso- beyond dispassionate neutral reporting on the ciations or unions of journalists have incorpo- scene of obvious gross inhumanity. Instead, Bell rated versions of these principles in their codes argued, the reporting should frame the report of conduct or ethical guidelines for journalists. from the victims’ perspective to evoke greater public awareness and wider reaction to end Other media workers however, particularly in the abuses. Another journalist, Todd Gjelten, the West, considered those declarations to be at argued “journalists can best serve victims by best descriptive of unintended consequences balancing humanity and professionalism.”22 of good journalism practice rather than daily requirements or objectives for the conduct of Simultaneously, an academic peace researcher, journalism. Western professional journalists John Galtung, presented a new categorization23 and media managers, asserting dedication to of conventional news reporting as “war journal- the traditional principle of neutrality in their ism.” Galtung argued that most regular journal- work, argue they were obliged to remain dis- ism inherently or intentionally emphasizes and engaged. In framing their stories they were not encourages violent conflict by its treatment of to contemplate the outcome of their report- the issues. Galtung identified many troubling ing and thus not alter their attempted truthful characteristics, including journalists’ reliance depictions of reality to further any outcome on elites and their one-sided explanations for they might personally seek, such as peace. conflicts and responses to conflict, a reliance on stereotypes, and an absence of reference However, by the turn of the 20th century, addi- to root causes and to alternative solutions to tional journalists and academics and conflict the conflict. Galtung and others advocated analysts had begun seriously revisiting the ques- tion of whether the news media should con- 20 Puddephatt, Andrew, Conflict and the role of the media, sciously seek to have a positive or peacebuilding International Media Support. Copenhagen. 2008. 21 Bell, Martin, The Journalism of Attachment, in Kieran (ed.) effect on conflict, through its reporting. These Media Ethics, Roultledge. London. 1998. 22 Gjeltjen, Todd, Finding the right moral attitude, in Media Studies Journal 15 (1.) 2001. 18 ht tp: //w w w.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/d _media.htm 23 Galtung, John, The Task of Peace Journalism, in Ethical Downloaded Nov. 14, 2008. Perspectives. 7. And: Galtung, John, Peace Journalism – A 19 http://ethicnet.uta.fi/international/international_principles_ Challenge. In Kempf, Whilhelm & Heikki Loustarinen (eds.) of_professional_ethics_in_journalism Downloaded Nov. 14, Journalism and the New World Order, Vol. 2. Studying the War and 2008. the Media. Nordicom, Gothenburg. 2002. 9
  13. 13. a new genre or practice of journalism that the attitudes of media owners, advertisers, placed peacebuilding as an essential value and professionals and audiences towards war and defined it as the lens through which to see and peace.”29 to report events and to frame information. “The media should be involved in peace,” according However, such assertions have promoted wide to the argument.24 and increasingly sharp debate in academic and Western journalistic circles.30 Critics argued This perspective of dissatisfaction with the way that “additional tasks in advocacy hinder news media conventionally reported on con- quality journalism in practice … Journalism flict “quickly developed into a movement that approaches which include conflict transforma- united under the slogan of ‘peace journalism’ ”, tion tasks are confronted with two objectives to according to Wilhelm Kempf in 2007, one of serve – the goals set by the public interest and many researchers who have now essayed on those of conflict transformation … Some topics peace journalism.25 Early leaders of the move- might remain uncovered because they do not ment were British journalists Jake Lynch and fit into the conflict transformation frame … The Annabel McGoldrick who attempted to put more additional tasks towards conflict transfor- Galtung’s analysis into applicable practices for mation that journalism has to carry the more its professional reporters and editors.26 Others credibility [as impartial and balanced] is weak- introduced structural media reform into the ened,” says researcher Christoph Spurk.31 discussion, arguing market forces, owner- ship structure, and regulation first must be Critic-analyst Thomas Hanitzch argues peace addressed if peace journalism is to succeed.27 journalism as defined is also naive and imprac- Other advocates argued for peace journalism tical. “To have any impact on the way the news to become the new norm of reporting: peace is being made … the advocates of peace jour- journalism is a better and more responsible way of reporting and serving society and it is 29 Ibid. what journalists should do, they said.28 30 See: Hanitzch, Thomas, Situating peace journalism in journal- ism studies: a critical appraisal, in Conflict and Communication Online, Vol. 6 (2) 2007, downloaded 11-08 at: http://www.cco. As defined at its broadest, “Peace journalism regener-online.de/ And: Bratic, Vladimir and Ross, Susan and Kang-Graham, combines journalism with an external aim. Hyeonjin for a particularly contemporary survey of the lit- It understands itself as a normative mode of erature, from a pro-peace journalism perspective, in: Bosnia’s Open Broadcast network, a brief but illustrative foray into responsible and conscientious media cover- peace journalism practice, in Global Media Journal, Vol. 7 (13) age of conflict that aims at contributing to 2008, downloaded 11-08 at http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu/ cca/gmj/fa08/gmj-fa08-bratic-ross-graham.htm peacemaking, peacekeeping and changing And: Shinar, Dov, Epilogue: Peace Journalism – the state of the art, in Conflict and Communication Online, Vol. 6 (2) 2007, downloaded 11-08 at: http://www.cco.regener-online.de/ 24 Shinar, Dov. Media Peace Discourse: constraints, concepts and And: Lyon, David, Good journalism or peace journalism? in building blocks, I 3 (1/2) 2004. Conflict and Communication Online, Vol. 6 (2) 2007, down- 25 Kempf, William, Peace journalism, a tightrope walk between loaded 11-08 at: http://www.cco.regener-online.de/ advocacy journalism and constructive conflict coverage., And: Lynch, Jake, A reply to the replies – Counterplea, in Conflict Conflict and Communications Online, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2007. and Communication Online, Vol. 6 (2) 2007, downloaded 11-08 26 Lynch, Jake and McGoldrick, Annabel, Peace Journalism, at: http://www.cco.regener-online.de/ Hawthorne Press. Stroud, UK. 2005. And: Kempf, op cit. 27 Hackett, Robert, Is peace journalism possible? Three frame- 31 Spurk, Christoph, Media, Peacebuilding and Civil Society, works for assessing structure and agency in news media. Paper presented to the International Studies Association, Conflict and Communication Online Vol. 5 (2). 2006. San Francisco, 2008. Downloaded at: http://www.allaca- 28 Shinar, Dov, Epilogue: Peace Journalism, The State of the Art, demic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/5/1/8/9/ Conflict and Communications Online, Vol. 7 (7), 2007. p251895_index.html Nov. 2008. 10
  14. 14. nalism must address the structural constraints any news media development initiative that of news production” ranging from professional it will benefit peacebuilding. In truth, project objectivity training to the industry’s news values evaluations that confirm specifically how and competitive demands, and must recognize this was accomplished are still rare, partially journalism’s limitations in conflict-acculturated because such evaluations are difficult and time- societies. consuming to conduct, and also rarely commis- sioned. Nonetheless, it is now widely accepted But the criticism of peace journalism is sharp- that news media development has benefits for est and most categorical amongst some jour- peacebuilding as well as democratization. nalists who call it a heretical abandonment of the integrity of journalism and its professional The specific application of journalism develop- norms.32 Peace journalism “is simply not the ment in areas of conflict now appears to follow role of a journalist and is based on the flawed identifiable paths. A 2004 study and compen- notion … The idea that reporters currently dium of media development initiatives self- only look for the epicenter of violence or are described as supporting, however indirectly, somehow addicted to conflict is absurd,” argues conflict resolution, presented case studies BBC journalist David Loyn.33 in five categories of activity. The categories ranged from conventional journalism training, As early as 2003 it was evident that the debate to strengthening journalists’ sensitivity to their about journalists’ relationship to conflict resolu- influence on conflict, to more overt journalis- tion, while healthy, was not going to be resolved tic advocacy for peace, to less journalistic but easily. A number of media development NGOs intentional use of media techniques to specifi- and analysts began exploring how to define cally influence audiences towards peace, and media practice that contributes to a commu- finally to addressing pro-war media or hate nity’s conflict resolution while adhering to the speech, by force or by other means. The study media’s core role of providing accurate unbi- noted more than 60 local and international ased information.34 A Copenhagen round table organizations working in media development organized in 2003 by the media developer and for conflict prevention or peacebuilding.35 An non-governmental organization International extensive Deutsche Welle 2007 examination Media Support to examine conflict reporting of media initiatives addressing conflict pre- concluded there was no consensus among vention and peacebuilding considered more media professionals. than 25 case studies of strategies adapted to five different conditions of conflict.36 A Since then, the number of media capacity- 2008 World Bank research paper on policies building initiatives that specifically refer to jour- of media development in post-conflict and nalism and conflict has increased substantially. fragile states included almost 20 evaluations of It has now become commonplace to write into one country’s media development initiatives it 32 Loyn, David, Witnessing the truth, Open democracy.net, 2003. Downloaded at: http://www.opendemocracy.net/media- 35 Howard, Ross, Rolt, Francis, van de Veen, Hans and Verhoeven, journalismwar/article_993.jsp. Nov 2008. Juliette, The Power of Media, European Centre for Conflict 33 Loyn, David, Good journalism or peace journalism, Conflict Prevention. Utrecht. 2003. and Communication Online, Vol 6 (2). 2007. 36 Lowenberg, Shira and Bonde, Bent Norby, Media in Conflict 34 Howard, Ross, An Operational Framework for Media and Prevention and Peacebuilding Strategies, Deutsche Welle, Bonn. Peacebuilding, IMPACS/CIDA. Vancouver, 2002. 2007. 11
  15. 15. termed supportive of conflict resolution and as much as funders and initiative develop- peace continuity.37 ers. Additional media-use initiatives, going beyond traditional news-gathering-and- The exploration of media and conflict continues distributing techniques, may be appropri- to expand. A more recent 2008 review38 sug- ate or even more effective. But the original gests that policy-makers and states seeking to use of the media – as the source of news, as a positively influence conflict resolution through forum and a watchdog – still remains a critical the media have at least four opportunities: influence on conflict and conflict resolution. professional journalism capacity-building; citizen-driven and community-based media The area of focus in this study – conflict-sensitive development especially utilizing new tech- reporting – reflects a modernization of the origi- nologies and grass-roots interests; intentional nal values of the news media. It is rooted in the peace-promoting media, particularly using belief that the news media in many societies can entertainment formats; and advertising, com- be a powerful force to reduce the causes of con- mercial messaging and other overt attempts to flict and to enable a conflict-stressed society to influence public attitudes. better pursue conflict resolution. The media can do this by training its journalists to better under- While the exploration of the media’s rela- stand conflict and the media’s role in it. The jour- tionship to conflict and conflict resolution nalists can strengthen their reporting to avoid continues, some certainties seem now well- stereotypes and narrow perspectives on the established. The first is that in media develop- causes and process of conflict. The media can ment initiatives, conflict resolution is no longer contribute to a wider dialogue among dispa- a secondary consideration. In fragile and post- rate parts of the community in conflict, through conflict environments a reliable, responsible improved reporting. It can explore and provide news media is a critical part of preventing and information about opportunities for resolution. resolving violent conflict. Media workers, man- And at the same time the media must maintain agers and owners and regulators deserve and its essential standards of accuracy, fairness and require an understanding of this distinct reality, balance, and responsible conduct. 37 Kalathif, Shanthi, Towards a New Model. Media and Communication in Post-Conflict and Fragile States, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program, World Bank. Washington. 2008. 38 Media, Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding: Mapping the Edges, Sheldon Himelfarb and Megan Chablowski, United States Institute of Peace briefing, October, 2008. Downloadable at: http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2008/1008_ media_prevention_peacebuilding.html. 12
  16. 16. 3. Curriculum outline This document represents a model curriculum Journalism: A Handbook, published in 2003.39 for a training programme of strengthening the That document was derived from pioneering skills of professional journalists in reporting on work by organizations and individuals such violent conflict. It is particularly intended for as the Institute for War and Peace Reporting, presentation to small groups of relatively-inex- Internews, Search for Common Ground, IMPACS, perienced to mid-career reporters, editors and DFID, the Media Diversity Institute, and Peter du producers working in environments such as Toit, Alison Campbell, Fiona Lloyd, Jake Lynch conflict-stressed states and emerging democ- and Annabel McGoldrick, and research and racies. It is constructed in five parts which can training experience in a number of conflict- be used as a core for more substantial and stressed countries. longer exploration of essential issues. In all parts, course leaders, instructors or trainers will This curriculum benefits from additional develop their own examples and exercises to research and experience in conflict-stressed support key concepts. environments, and consultation with individ- uals and representatives of media develop- The course emphasizes the critical importance ment organizations including Panos Paris, The of basic standards of practice in journalism, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, Media21, reflecting the libertarian value of free speech the BBC World Service Trust, Internews, and enabled through a reliable, independent news UNESCO. Additional insight was gratefully media. The training builds the capacity of jour- received from individuals including Marie-Soleil nalists to explore and analyze the dynamics of Frere, Francis Rolt, Ann Olsen, Christoph Spurk, violent conflict in their community. It encour- Ivan Sigal, Sheldon Himmelfarb, John Keating, ages them to be aware of the influence their Krishna Kumar, Vladimir Bratic and Lisa Schirch. reporting can have on inflaming or moderating Also valuable was the work of International violent conflict. The training presents journalists Media Support and the Kenyan adaptations to with conflict-reporting techniques that avoid the 2003 handbook and reports on the applica- contributing to conflict and include explora- tion of those versions. tion of conflict resolution possibilities for the community. It encourages them to recognize that reporting on conflict resolution is an inte- Course description gral part of objective reporting, a strengthen- ing of reliable journalism, and does not require The central concept of Conflict-Sensitive radically changed practices in journalism. Reporting is that violent conflict attracts intense news media attention that requires This curriculum is partially based on a guide- greater analytical depth and skills to report on book for training and familiarization in conflict- it without contributing to further violence nor sensitive reporting, entitled Conflict Sensitive 39 Howard, Ross, Conflict Sensitive Journalism: A Handbook for Reporters, IMPACS-International Media Support. Vancouver and Copenhagen. 2003. 13
  17. 17. overlooking peacebuilding opportunities. This by Norwegian researcher John Galtung.40 The sensitization to the role and responsibility of course traces some common patterns of con- reporting on conflict represents an expansion flict resolution, from forceful imposition of of journalism practice but not a radical change. one side’s interests, through collaboration to It is better reporting. It is a socially responsible transformation of the issue into a shared solu- approach, enabling citizens to make better-in- tion. The course examines how to distinguish formed choices in their own best interests. between expressed demands and real needs, and how to see possibilities of shared interests, Conflict-Sensitive Reporting is based on rigor- reflecting the analytical approach of the Search ous adherence to the essential core standards for Common Ground organization.41 of journalism, which are often cited as accuracy in truth-seeking, objectivity or fair balance, and The second central objective follows, in the responsibility or ethical conduct. Combined, Journalism and Conflict section: to demon- these attributes plus media independence and strate the influence of reliable journalism on diversity constitute what can be called a reli- conflict and conflict mediation, and to also able news media. While there are significant note journalism’s limitations. Reliable journal- variations in the expression of these stand- ism bears similarities to conflict mediation ards, partially reflecting cultural and political and can play an innate or unintended role and other influences, in almost all cases where in peacebuilding, by providing information independent organizations of working journal- essential to the process of conflict resolution. ists are able to freely express their ambitions The curriculum continues to reinforce the and ideals they include these three standards essential standards of professional journalism, as among the most important. by distinguishing between sensitive report- ing and advocacy. It explores how reporting This curriculum begins with introductions and on conflict solutions is part of journalistic enabling participants to describe their interests objectivity. and their perception of local conflicts, and then moves to reiteration of essential standards of The course then examines and demonstrates journalism practice. more specific aspects of delivering a more con- flict-sensitive style of reporting. It also examines The course then explores the nature and techniques for improved reporting on conflict, dynamics of conflict and conflict resolution. pitfalls to avoid, and specific challenges facing This section, Understanding Conflict, presents journalists reporting on violent conflict, such as one of the two central objectives of the course: reflecting gender sensitivity, dealing with hate to provide reporters with a rudimentary capac- speech, and recognizing trauma. ity to analyze the process of violent conflict, including potential possibilities of conflict The course alternates between theory and resolution. This includes an examination of practice, or concepts and techniques. Course the most recurrent sources of violent conflict, and cultural and structural traditions that con- 40 Galtung, J. and Vincent, R, Global Glasnost: Towards a new tribute to those sources, originally described world information and communication order? Hampton Press. Cresskill Creek, New Jersey. 1992. 41 See: Radio Talkshows for Peacebuilding: A Guide, Search for Common Ground/Radio for Peacebuilding Africa, down- loaded at http://www.roadiopeaceafrica.org. 14
  18. 18. leaders, instructors and others using this analysis, story critiquing and reporting assign- curriculum as a teaching tool are recom- ments be included in group format and indi- mended to study it, and refer to particu- vidual assignments. lar resources to create detailed teaching notes for each module of the course and Course leaders, trainers and others present- to develop practical media-based exam- ing this course should make reference to the ples to apply in demonstration of the Trainers’ Notes, Case Histories and Resources specific modules. Journalists, it is said, learn documents following the course modules. by doing and learn best from each other, so it is These materials are directly applicable to recommended that reporting exercises of issue Conflict-Sensitive Reporting. 15
  19. 19. Learning objectives » Confirm a basic understanding of news media roles and generally-recognized essential standards of practice for professional journalists. » Understand how violent conflict most commonly begins, and recognize social struc- tures that can channel conflict to violence. » Understand several different patterns of conflict resolution and recognize elements of the process such as demands and needs and shared interests. » Understand parallels between reliable journalism and conflict mediation. » Understand the essential role of objectivity and truth-seeking in reporting on conflict. » Appreciate journalism’s opportunities and constraints in reporting comprehensively on conflict. » Understand techniques such as appropriate language, framing, spin avoidance. » Recognize specific problems and possible solutions confronting conflict-sensitive journalists. 16
  20. 20. Outcomes » Increased appreciation of essential standards in professional reporting on conflict. » Strengthened capacity to analyze conflict. » Strengthened capacity to make conflict sources, processes and possible solutions more transparent to society. » Increased awareness of the influence of reporting techniques upon increasing or resolv- ing conflict. » Strengthened reporting skills in use of imagery and language, responding to hate speech, censorship and intimidation and facing similar media challenges in conflict- stressed states. » Strengthened awareness of gender issues and establishing gender balance in reporting on conflict. 17
  21. 21. Curriculum outline Part 1 Media basics 1.1 Introductions 1.2 Exercise: Mapping local conflict 1.3 Standards of journalism Part 2 Understanding conflict 2.1. How conflict starts 2.2 Sources of violence 2.3. How conflict ends 2.4 Interests and needs and common ground Part 3 Journalism and conflict 3.1 Journalism’s automatic, unintended influence 3.2 Journalism’s limitations 3.3 Objectivity 3.4 Reporting on peacebuilding Part 4 Conflict-sensitive reporting 4.1 Expanding the agenda: framing 4.2 Avoiding spin 4.3. Conflict-sensitive words and images 4.4 Realities and responsibilities Part 5 Special considerations 5.1 Hate speech 5.2 Gender 5.3. Safety 5.4 Journalists as victims: trauma 5.5 Conclusion 18
  22. 22. 4. Detailed curriculum Course leaders or trainers are advised to first read Chapter 2. Recognizing the media role in conflict, and Chapter 3. Curriculum outline. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 1 Media basics Activity 1.1 Introduction Objectives: Activity 1.1a Introductions Introduce participants, 1. Each participant briefly interviews and then introduces a partner par- describe course intentions, ticipant they did not previously know well. establish overview context Activity Note: The introduction by partnered interviewers replicates the news- Method of delivery: gathering process and affirms the news media’s values of accurate, essential and interesting news. Lecture style and group dis- cussion and presentation Activity 1.1b Explain the goals of this course to the participants. Materials: The course objectives are: Flip charts • to confirm the underpinnings of reliable professional news-gathering: the media’s essential standards of practice and values; Display facility (overhead • to present a basic description of the dynamics of violent conflict and projector, Powerpoint or conflict resolution in modern societies; similar) • to demonstrate to journalists the influence the news media can have Markers/pens/tape on violent conflict, and conflict resolution, particularly noting the unintended mediating role of the media in conflict resolution; Room setup: • to understand the role of the professional journalist and the news U-shape seating area media related to conflict and conflict resolution; • to consider responses to particular challenges that confront the news Course leader in open media in reporting on conflict and conflict resolution; section • to develop skill in applying this new knowledge through examination Group work areas of case studies and contemporary examples and simulations. Time: Activity 1.1c Participants’ ambitions Two+ hours (depending on 1. Each participant briefly describes one specific strategy or skill con- numbers) cerning conflict reporting that they would like to explore, during the course. A rough sketch or diagram on display to demonstrate Topics should be noted as presented and any not contained within the the media tree concept, course contents should be added to a flip-chart list called The Parking including one example each Lot for listing unresolved subjects that must be emptied (addressed) of a root and a fruit before the end of the course. Activity Note: This activity encourages participants to note shared concerns, enables trainers to indicate where some interests fit into the course goals, adds new topics to be covered during the workshop where they exist. Activity 1.1d The media tree In small groups, participants consider and discuss and present a group description of the risks and benefits to having a functioning news media. The media itself is the tree trunk. It bears fruits such as public education and free speech. However, it faces risks at its root level such as corruption and censorship which can kill the tree’s benefits. Each group is asked to conceptualize fruits and root-risks as widely as possible, assemble list/ illustration and represent to the larger group. Activity Note: This activity briefly establishes a larger context of social structures and environments within which to examine and study the news media and conflict-sensitive reporting. 19
  23. 23. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 1 Media basics Activity 1.2 Mapping local conflict Objectives: Activity 1.2 Mapping local conflict Develop awareness 2. Participants individually write very brief description of local or regional of differing perceptions conflict as they perceive its main actors, causes, actors’ objectives, of local conflict outcomes, and very briefly report this to the group. Common themes are noted. Individuals’ descriptions and responses should be non- Method of delivery: judgmental. Participants retain their report for later reconsideration. Individual presentation by participants Questions to stimulate this discussion might include: what is the most significant violent conflict or threat that affects your country, is it politi- Facilitated discussion of cal, criminal or other, is it local or country-wide, is it between identifiable comparison of highlighted groups, what is the issue that makes them resort to violence? Describe points in presentations how the media reports the violence: accurately, partisan, different in Materials: print versus broadcast, etc. What impact does media coverage have on the conflict? Has the media been criticized? By whom? Flip charts Activity Note: The introduction of individuals’ perceptions of one or more Markers/pens/tape conflict situations allows a facilitated non-judgmental comparison of per- Room setup: ceived key segments of conflict analysis including conflict sources and resolution U-shape seating area processes. The possibilities of deeper and wider analysis are suggested, for later consideration. Group leader in open section Group work areas Time: One-two hours (depending on numbers) 20
  24. 24. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 1 Media basics Activity 1.3 Standards of journalism Objectives: Activity 1.3a Establish essential standards Establish/confirm aware- of professional journalism ness of essential standards 3. The course leader presents a very brief survey of professional codes of of professional journalism conduct demonstrating wide consensus on the core values of: practice • accuracy, Establish familiarity with • objectivity or impartiality and fair balance, role of independent and • and ethical responsibility, such as avoiding illegality, malice, plagia- diverse news media (“free rism, betraying sources. media”) in service of public 4. The standards are explained and demonstrated through examples of interests accomplishment and failure of these standards, illustrated in printed, Method of delivery: broadcast or online material. Course leader facilitates 5. The connection between media reliability and the benefits of discussion establishing independence and diversity among media outlets should also be standards explored. Course leader presents role Activity note: The confirmation of basic understanding of standards can be of media in society facilitated through a reporting assignment now or at the end of the day, in which Materials: members individually prepare written/broadcast report, and compare with each other and with course leader’s example. Flip charts Activity 1.3b Establish a consensus on idealized role Markers/pens/tape of media in society Room setup: Beginning with facilitated response to the question: “Why do we do it? U-shape seating area. What is our role?” course leader presents news-gathering as messenger, Course leader in open forum and watchdog -- a process of serving society’s best interests as section an impartial conduit for information for citizens, as a public forum for free speech, and as a monitor of government. It is important to note that Time: a functioning free media neither supports nor overtly opposes govern- a: 2-4 hours with ment or other interests, except in editorial/opinion segments. The role of assignment state-owned media which is independent or controlled, versus private media, should be noted. b: 1 hour Media as potential actor or facilitator in community affairs, including in conflict resolution, is raised as a possible additional role, but not exten- sively defined yet. Activity note. The concepts presented here reflect roles of news media in an idealized democratic capitalist economy. These presumptions of conditions need to be continuously acknowledged by the course leader, and participants should be encouraged to note and discuss variations of local-regional political and economic structures, and perceived roles of the news media in their society. 21
  25. 25. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 2 Understanding conflict Activity 2.1 How conflict starts Objectives: Activity 2.1a: Develop awareness of con- Course leader introduces concept of conflict as a field of study highly flict as a field of study appropriate to journalism but previously ignored. Leader facilitates a basic definition of conflict similar to: two or more individuals or groups Develop awareness of pursuing goals they believe they cannot share. common causes of violent conflict Course leader presents distinctions between conflict and violence, dis- cusses transitory nature of violent conflict and notes early warning sign Method of delivery: for journalists: change and resistance is a common precursor to conflict. Lecture style and facilitated discussion Activity 2.1b: Course leader presents a description of the most common or root causes Materials: of violent conflict, such as poverty (unequal access to essential resource Flip charts such as food and housing,) little communication between competing Display facility (overhead groups, groups hold incorrect ideas about each other, unresolved griev- projector, Powerpoint or ances remain alive, and power is unevenly distributed. similar) Markers/pens/tape Specific examples from past conflicts are provided. Participants are Room setup: invited to revisit and discuss their 1.2 presentations on sources of local conflict to establish if root causes are common or unique. U-shape seating area Activity note: It is important to distinguish between conflict meaning disa- Facilitator in open section greement between parties debating change, for example, and parties whose Time: disagreement becomes unmanageable and resorts to physical violence. Simple One hour-90 minutes conflict or disagreement can be useful, where it is properly managed. It is how change is determined in democratic societies What is not useful is unmanaged conflict. “It is preferable to have conflicts fought in the media rather than in the streets.” 22
  26. 26. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 2 Understanding conflict Activity 2.2 Violence Objectives: Activity 2.2 Develop understanding Course leader introduces the concept of violence as curtailment or abuse of concepts for analysing of fundamental human rights in several forms. conflict • Physical violence Method of delivery: • Other categories of violence, often ignored, tolerated or endorsed by Lecture style and facilitated empowered interests. discussion – Cultural violence. Cultural violence can be long-tolerated com- munity talk and beliefs about another community, expressed in Materials: terms such as hate speech, religious intolerance as justification for Flip charts war, and gender discrimination which permits practices against Display facility (overhead women that are not accepted against men. projector, Powerpoint or – Institutional violence. Abuse of human rights that has been written similar) into law or tradition, such as legal racism and sexism, extreme exploitation through slavery or caste, and corruption through Markers/pens/tape nepotism, are examples of institutional violence. Room setup: The introduction of multiple forms of violence is effective in encouraging U-shape seating area journalists in conflict-stressed communities to expand beyond a narrow Facilitator in open section emphasis only on physical impacts of violence and begin to include ref- erence to cultural and institutional forms of violence as possible contrib- Time: utors to the violent physical conflict. Two hours Course leader invites participants in groups to revisit their descriptions of local or regional conflicts and using one conflict as an example, develop and present a group analysis of any forms of violence underlying the conflict. Participants are also invited to identify and describe particularly dominant forms of violence in their personal community. Activity Note: Course leaders and instructors are recommended to consult Chapter 1 of Radio Talkshows for Peacebuilding: A Guide. Edition 2, downloadable at: www.sfcg.org and www.radiopeaceafrica.org for preliminary descriptions of these concepts and for reference to academic source material. A more exten- sive source is the Typology of Violence at P. 60-63 in Lynch, Jake and McGoldrick, Annabel, Peace Journalism, Hawthorn Press. Stroud (UK). 2005. 23
  27. 27. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 2 Understanding conflict Activity 2.3 How conflict ends Objectives: Activity 2.3a: Develop an understanding Course leader uses role play and two participants to demonstrate and of categories of conflict res- discuss different strategies for ending a violent conflict between them. olution ranging from con- • The strategies are: One-party dominance quest to common ground • Withdrawl Method of delivery: • Compromise • Achieving common ground and transcendence of the conflict to a Lecture style and facilitated shared acceptable outcome. discussion Activity note: These categorizations are often demonstrated by the role play Materials: dispute over an orange on a branch overhanging one property but on a tree Flip charts growing on adjacent property. The resolution possibilities are described on P. 10 Material containing case of Conflict-Sensitive Journalism, op cit. For details on conflict resolution, see studies Galtung, John, Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means. 2000. Available at: http://www.transcend.org. Display facility (overhead projector, Powerpoint or Activity 2.3b: similar) The course leader presents case studies of contemporary conflicts Markers/pens/tape resolved by these strategies and invites participants to present their own examples. The 1992 peace accord ending conflict in Mozambique is an Room setup: excellent case study. See: Reychler and Paffenholz (eds), Peacebuilding, a U-shape seating area. field guide. Lynne Reiner. Boulder. 2001. Facilitator in open section Activity note: Examples of conflict resolution cases should be selected to include demonstrating the benefit of bringing multiple approaches, interests and per- Time: spectives to a conflict in aid of resolution, and noting the media as a vehicle and One hour forum for doing this. The importance of introducing additional perspectives and interests in conflict resolution rather than relying exclusively on traditional elites, should be emphasized. The exercise can also be discussed in terms of revealing to journalists what professional conflict mediators may be attempting behind the scenes, and thus suggest additional sources and perspectives for jour- nalists to seek out and report. 24
  28. 28. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 2 Understanding conflict Activity 2.4 Demands and needs and common ground Objectives: Activity 2.4a: Develop an understand- Course leader presents the concept of positions or demands as ing of forces motivating expressed by parties in a conflict versus the more fundamental interests opposing sides in a conflict, or real needs of those parties. Fundamental needs often go unstated but to more accurately report deserve examination by the media to accurately portray the factors con- them tributing to the conflict. Course leader presents examples of expressed demands and fundamental needs. The simplest example is one group Introduce participants invading another’s territory and resources claiming to prevent disorder to more sophisticated but seeking to exploit those resources. Participants are invited to present mapping of a conflict to their own examples. better report it, including opportunities for possible Activity 2.4b: resolution The course leader presents the argument that media reporting that Method of delivery: examines fundamental needs beneath expressed demands of opposed parties to a conflict may reveal aspects of need which are shared by the Lecture style and facilitated parties, or common ground, which can also be reported. The simplest discussion example is groups in violent conflict over an area of land but who share Materials: need for improved access to the land’s water resource. Flip charts Using hypothetical conflict case studies the course leader invites partici- Material containing case pants in groups to assemble a more comprehensive mapping of the con- studies. flict case study including identifying root causes and forms of violence, demands and needs of the conflicting parties, identifying multiple inter- Display facility (overhead ests and multiple approaches to resolving the conflict including possible projector, Powerpoint or non-violent resolutions based on common ground or transformation. similar) Activity note: Journalists need to be able to distinguish between demands and Markers/pens/tape needs, and recognize that only needs can be shared. A relevant basic explana- Room setup: tion of positions, needs and common ground, particularly useful for radio talk- U-shape seating area show hosts dealing with conflict issues but relevant to all journalists, is available at Radio Talkshows for Peacebuilding: A Guide, Edition 2, downloadable at: Facilitator in open section www.sfcg.org and www.radiopeaceafrica.org Time: Two hours 25
  29. 29. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 3 Journalism and conflict Activity 3.1 Journalism’s unintended influence Objectives: Activity 3.1a: Reinforce basic standards of Course leader briefly cites infamous examples of media inciting or journalism by citing conse- inflaming violent conflict: such as Rwanda, Serbia and Kenya 2007 post- quences of failure to uphold election. Participants are invited to briefly present their own examples. standards Activity notes: If the ideals and daily reliability of the news media are not upheld, Develop understanding then the media can significantly fuel conflict. The examples demonstrate both of unintended and innate intentional and more accidental (Kenya) abuse of media standards with result- influence of reliable media ing negative media impact. on conflict mediation and Activity 3.1b: resolution Participants are asked to brainstorm about specific ways that reliable Method of delivery: news media reports can do the opposite to 3.1a, to reduce tensions or Lecture style and facilitated violence between disputing groups or tribes or nations. Real examples discussion will be presented by the course leader to encourage discussion. Materials: The course leader then introduces participants to the concept of media Flip charts roles as similar to 11 initiatives of conflict mediators, and to an exami- nation of those roles, as identified in Manoff, Robert, “Role Plays: Potential Material containing exam- media roles in conflict prevention and management,” Track Two 7:4, December ples of inflammatory media 1998; and in Howard, Ross, Conflict-Sensitive Journalism: a Handbook. in Rwanda, Serbia; post- IMS-IMPACS. Vancouver. 2003. violence analyses of Kenya media role • The roles include providing educating, providing an emotional outlet, correcting misperceptions, encouraging a balance of power, address- Display facility (overhead ing myths and enabling face-saving and consensus-building. projector, Powerpoint or • The consequences of reliable news reporting for conflict resolution similar) are the result of regular, conventional adherence to standards of jour- Markers/pens/tape nalism. Journalists with conflict analysis skills (Part 2) will be more per- ceptive in reporting on issues and delivering information that serves Room Setup: these conflict mediating roles. U-shape seating area Activity Note: Journalists should be made aware that these mediating conse- Course leader in open quences of reliable media reporting are unintended. Reliable reporting can have section an innate or automatic influence on conflict resolution. As South African analyst Time: Hans Baumann said, journalists mediate whether they intend to or not. Two hours 26
  30. 30. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 3 Journalism and conflict Activity 3.2 Journalism’s limitations Objectives: Activity 3.2: Gain understanding of Course leader presents a preliminary exploration of media effects theory media as instrument of to caution against unrealistic expectations of media influence, especially social change (media effects on conflict and conflict resolution. theory) • Knowledge, attitude and behaviour are a hierarchy of related stages Method of delivery: in social change. Activators of change in each of these stages include Lecture style and group compulsion, manipulation, and persuasion or a combination of discussion these. • In general, the media does not tell people what to think, but what Materials: to think about. For example, media reporting of conflict often places Flip charts feared consequences of violence on the public’s agenda (the effect of compulsion or manipulation.) This knowledge prompts attitudinal Markers/pens change precipitating behavioural action such as deciding to flee. Tape The course leader leads an exploration of examples of positive media- Room setup: induced change. The subtle or indirect and gradual nature of the change U-shape chairs is emphasized. A well-informed group’s changed attitude may lead it to recognize common interest with former opponents, and to resist nega- Facilitator in open section tive arguments presented by others. Time: Participants are asked to cite any experience in fields such as develop- 30 minutes-one hour ment, health, anti-AIDS initiatives and consider the indirect media influ- ence on behaviour. The course leader responds with leading examples summarized in Feek, Warren, Moving Media: The Case for the Role of Communications in Meeting the MDGs, in Media Matters, Global Forum for Media Development. Internews. Paris. 2007. Activity Note: For a preliminary description of media effects and social change, see Bratic,V, and Schirch, L, Why and When to Use the Media for Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding, European Centre for Conflict Prevention. The Hague. 2007. Part of the intention here is to caution journalists against assuming immediate and direct influence on public behaviours as a result of their reporting. 27
  31. 31. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 3 Journalism and conflict Activity 3.3 Objectivity or advocacy Objectives: Activity 3.3a: To reinforce the value of The course leader facilitates a discussion about the possibility of jour- objectivity in journalism nalists intentionally using their conflict-sensitive influence to support or advocate conflict resolution. Pro-peace or advocacy reporting is com- To examine journalism’s pared with the meaning and value of objectivity in journalism. Conflict- responsibility to report or sensitive reporting is described as the professional journalist’s appropriate support conflict resolution response to the contradiction between advocacy and objectivity. To assert the merits of • The standards of journalism, including objectivity or impartiality and better professional journal- fairness, are essential to media credibility and public support of the ism, not advocacy media. The first responsibility of the news media is to take no sides Method of delivery: and report the truth as best ascertained. Lecture style and facilitated • Objectivity is an ideal, an essential technique for removing bias in discussion seeking truth. Objectivity, while not absolutely achievable, is a com- mitment by the journalist to set aside personal or other values that Materials: would shape the story differently. Flip charts • Journalists also have responsibility to not produce information or see Display facility (overhead their information be used to mislead the public, to inflame conflict. projector, Powerpoint or • Sensational, biased, narrowly-defined, elite-sourced conflict report- similar) ing occurs for many reasons including media owners’ imperatives, government censorship and intimidation. Markers/pens/tape • Abandoning the core values of journalism will not resolve these chal- Room setup: lenges but will weaken journalism’s credibility in truth-seeking. • Conflict sensitivity gives reporters more comprehensive insight into U-shape seating area violent conflict, including providing news in a fuller context, includ- Course leader in open ing possibilities of resolving the conflict. section • The key to better reporting on violent conflict is to report peacebuild- ing as well as report conflict. “What we are talking about is not new Time: tools but sharper traditional tools and new insights into using them. “ 90 minutes Activity note: The discussion includes a brief exploration of sensational or irre- sponsible journalism which can inflame conflict, and the temptation for journal- ists disillusioned with the influence of traditional journalism to adopt advocacy for peacebuilding. 28
  32. 32. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 3 Journalism and conflict Activity 3.4 Reporting on peacebuilding Objectives: Activity 3.4: To demonstrate conflict res- The course leader introduces an analogy between inclusion of con- olution initiatives as part of flict resolution initiatives in conflict reporting and inclusion of cures in balance and context in reli- health reporting. This session is intended to demonstrate that inclusion able reporting on conflict of information about conflict resolution opportunities or peacebuild- ing potential is a part of sophisticated comprehensive reporting which Method of delivery: has too often been ignored and has provided incomplete information to Lecture style and facilitated citizens. discussion Objectivity is not compromised by reporting more comprehensively. It Materials: is as appropriate to report on possible solutions to a conflict as to report Flip charts on a cure for a disease such as malaria. It does not make a reporter into a peace advocate, any more than it makes a health reporter into an anti- Display facility (overhead malaria crusader. Both kinds of reporters share a desire to see the public projector, Powerpoint or better informed. similar) Activity note: As conflict analyst John Galtung observes, reporting on con- Markers/pens/tape flict without seeking and reporting information on the conflict’s root causes, its Room setup: forms of violence and potential awareness of how it can end is similar to a news U-shape seating area report that describes an illness without reporting on what causes the illness and without reporting on the medicines that can cure it. Course leader in open section Examples of incomplete reporting are examined. Time: Acknowledging these deeper and wider aspects of a conflict does 30 minutes not constitute endorsing any particular initiative or the concept of peacebuilding. 29
  33. 33. Conflict-sensitive reporting Day 4 Conflict-sensitive reporting Activity 4.1 Framing conflict Objectives: Activity 4.1: To reinforce 3.3 Objectivity The course leader reviews the 3.3 discussion of objectivity or impartiality values in reporting. The course leader introduces the concept of story framing which journalists engage in when researching and composing a news To demonstrate that con- report. The influence of personal, cultural and other factors on framing is flict-sensitive journalism discussed. The course leader uses role play in composing a photograph, seeks additional frameworks and other examples of media framing such as differing interpretations of for more comprehensive conflicts such as the invasion of Iraq, to demonstrate framing and objectiv- reporting ity in reporting, and the influence on public perceptions. Participants are Method of delivery: invited to contribute examples of their own influences on their framing. Lecture style and facilitated The influence of conflict sensitivity in framing is discussed. Examples are discussion presented similar to Example #1, P. 20 of Howard, Ross, Conflict-Sensitive Journalism: A Handbook, op cit. Materials: • Framing is an essential part of the journalistic process of making events Flip charts and information understandable by the public. Framing involves jour- Display facility (overhead nalists making choices about the significance of elements to include projector, Powerpoint or within the frame. similar) • Conflict-sensitive journalists need to be aware of conventional frame- Markers/pens/tape works they use to compose their stories. Language and image use can also be part of the framing purpose. Room setup: • Conflict sensitivity enables a journalist to be aware of multiple frame- U-shape seating area works which may be applicable to a story. Course leader in open Activity note: An initial consideration of journalistic framing and multiple section conventional frameworks is available at http://www.poynter.org/column. asp?id=58&aid=81884. Additional discussion material is available at http:// Time: www.journalism.org/node/447. Two hours 30