AN INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Basic functions of living things: </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness: irri...
<ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>the study of internal and external  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>microscopic; cytology and histology </li></ul><ul><li>Gross (macroscopic); surface, regi...
<ul><li>Levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>- smallest stable units of matter </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>d ) Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>- similar cells working together to  </li></ul><ul><li>perform a specific function <...
<ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>- interaction of organs </li></ul><ul><li>- organs systems and function: </li></ul...
<ul><li>iii – muscular: locomotion, support,  </li></ul><ul><li>produces heat </li></ul><ul><li>iv – nervous: response to ...
<ul><li>viii- respiratory: delivery of air to gas  </li></ul><ul><li>exchange sites </li></ul><ul><li>ix - digestive: dige...
<ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>stable internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>homeosta...
<ul><li>3 components: </li></ul><ul><li>i  - receptor: sensitive to environmental </li></ul><ul><li>changes </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><li>A stimulus produces a response that  </li></ul><ul><li>opposes  the original s...
<ul><li>Language of anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>anatomical landmarks: show human in anatom...
<ul><li>2) Sectional anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>body planes:  </li></ul><ul><li>a) transverse/ horizontal </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>a) Dorsal:  </li></ul><ul><li>i- cranial: enclose the brain </li></ul><ul><li>ii- ...
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Lec Kss1033

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Lec Kss1033

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Basic functions of living things: </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness: irritability and adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>the study of internal and external </li></ul><ul><li>structure and the physical relationship </li></ul><ul><li>between body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>the study of how living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>perform their vital functions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>microscopic; cytology and histology </li></ul><ul><li>Gross (macroscopic); surface, regional, systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>human phy. </li></ul><ul><li>special phy: renal, cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>system phy: respiratory, reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>pathological phy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>- smallest stable units of matter </li></ul><ul><li>b) Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>- combination of atoms, complex </li></ul><ul><li>shapes </li></ul><ul><li>c) Cells </li></ul><ul><li>- combination of different molecules </li></ul><ul><li>- ex. Muscle cell </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>d ) Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>- similar cells working together to </li></ul><ul><li>perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>- cardiac muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>- two or more different tissues </li></ul><ul><li>working together to perform specific </li></ul><ul><li>function </li></ul><ul><li>- heart, kidney, ovary, testis, lung </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>- interaction of organs </li></ul><ul><li>- organs systems and function: </li></ul><ul><li>i - Integumentary: protects against </li></ul><ul><li>environmental hazards, controls </li></ul><ul><li>body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>ii - Skeletal: provides support, protect </li></ul><ul><li>tissues, stores minerals, forms </li></ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>iii – muscular: locomotion, support, </li></ul><ul><li>produces heat </li></ul><ul><li>iv – nervous: response to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>v – endocrine: control changes in </li></ul><ul><li>activities of other organs </li></ul><ul><li>vi – cardiovascular: transport cells and </li></ul><ul><li>dissolved materials (nutrients, </li></ul><ul><li>waste, gas) </li></ul><ul><li>vii- lymphatic: immune system, returns </li></ul><ul><li>tissue fluid to the bloodstream </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>viii- respiratory: delivery of air to gas </li></ul><ul><li>exchange sites </li></ul><ul><li>ix - digestive: digestion, absorption and </li></ul><ul><li>excretion of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>x - urinary system: excretion of waste, </li></ul><ul><li>water, salt </li></ul><ul><li>xi – reproductive system: produce sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>and hormones </li></ul><ul><li>*** damage of one of these levels may affect </li></ul><ul><li>the entire system </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>stable internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>homeostatic regulation </li></ul><ul><li>adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>3 components: </li></ul><ul><li>i - receptor: sensitive to environmental </li></ul><ul><li>changes </li></ul><ul><li>ii - control center: receive and process </li></ul><ul><li>info. from receptor </li></ul><ul><li>iii- effector: respond to the command of </li></ul><ul><li>control center </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><li>A stimulus produces a response that </li></ul><ul><li>opposes the original stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>ex. control of body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>(thermoregulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback loop </li></ul><ul><li>the initial stimulus produces a response </li></ul><ul><li>that reinforces the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of a dangerous or stressful </li></ul><ul><li>process that must be completed quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: blood clotting when bleeding occurs </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Language of anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>anatomical landmarks: show human in anatomical position (supine & prone) </li></ul><ul><li>anatomical regions </li></ul><ul><li>- divide into quadrant (clinician) and </li></ul><ul><li>region (anatomist) </li></ul><ul><li>- to describe aches, pain and injury </li></ul><ul><li>anatomical directions </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2) Sectional anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>body planes: </li></ul><ul><li>a) transverse/ horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>- perpendicular to long axis </li></ul><ul><li>- superior and inferior section </li></ul><ul><li>b) frontal/coronal </li></ul><ul><li>- parallel to long axis (side to side) </li></ul><ul><li>- anterior and posterior </li></ul><ul><li>c) sagittal/ midsagittal </li></ul><ul><li>- parallel to long axis (front to back) </li></ul><ul><li>- left and right </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>a) Dorsal: </li></ul><ul><li>i- cranial: enclose the brain </li></ul><ul><li>ii- spinal: enclose the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>b) Ventral: </li></ul><ul><li>i- thoracic: pericardial (heart), </li></ul><ul><li>pleural (lungs) </li></ul><ul><li>ii- abdominal: stomach, SI, LI </li></ul><ul><li>iii- pelvic: bladder, rectum </li></ul>
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