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A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations
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A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations

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Task Models describe how to perform activities to reach users' goals. Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches. Task models can be …

Task Models describe how to perform activities to reach users' goals. Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches. Task models can be represented at various abstraction levels. When designers want to specify only requirements regarding how activities should be performed, they consider only the main high-level tasks. On the other hand, when designers aim to provide precise design indications then the activities are represented at a small granularity, thus including aspects related to the dialogue model of a user interface (which defines how system and user actions can be sequenced). In this paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today’s multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressiveness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW

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  • 1. A comparative analysis of task modelingnotations Dra. Josefina Guerrero García Dr. Juan Manuel González Calleros Dr. Jean Vanderdonckt * Facultad de Ciencias de la Computación Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla *Université catholique de Louvain Email: jguerrero@cs.buap.mx juan.gonzalez@cs.buap.mx
  • 2. Outline• Introduction• Overview of task models• A multi-user interaction meta-model• Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction (1/4)• Task models describe how to perform activities to reach user´s goals.• Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches.• A number of task modeling notations have been developed in HCI communities, often with different goals and different strengths.
  • 4. Task Modeling are theIntroduction (2/4) hearth of Model Driven Development of UIs Task & Domain (T&D) AbstractIndividual Container Abstract User Interface AIC AIC AIC facet=control facet=control facet=control (AUI) Window Concrete User Interface textInput button button (CUI) Final User Interface (FUI)
  • 5. Introduction (3/4)• A comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today´s multiuser interaction task modeling.
  • 6. Introduction (4/4)• The goals are: ▫ To provide a conceptual understanding of the most significant models involving multiple users and their related concepts. ▫ To establish semantic mappings between the different models so as to create a transversal understanding of their underlying concepts independently of their peculiarities. ▫ To rely on these semantic mappings to develop a multi-user model editor that accommodates any type of input.
  • 7. Overview of task models (1/7)• Our method for uniforming task models consists of four major steps: 1. selection of individual task models, 2. identification of the concepts within each model, 3. representation of those concepts into a meta- model, 4. consolidation of these meta-models into one single meta-model (called multi-user interaction model).
  • 8. Overview of task models (2/7)• The following criteria were used: ▫ The task models should be integrated in a development methodology as a core or side component and tool supported. ▫ The task models should be widespread and accepted within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community. ▫ The selected models should be supported by theoretical studies to assess their soundness and experimental studies for effective case studies.
  • 9. Overview of task models (3/7)• Each model was decomposed into constituent concepts using an entity-relationship method and UML representation.• A syntactical uniforming has been conducted to provide a single way of referring to different concepts where possible.• For concepts having different definitions a semantic uniforming is needed (semantic mappings between concepts having different aims and scopes).
  • 10. Overview of task models (4/7)• To maximize the semantic scope of the uniformed task meta-model, the union of the concepts present in each particular task meta- models was preferred rather than the intersection.• We use Separation of concern principle, which assumes that only concepts relevant to a similar domain of discourse should be kept in a particular model, thus avoiding mixing different concepts into a single model.
  • 11. Overview of task models (5/7)• Task modeling notations reviewedAMBOSS GTA (Groupware Task Analysis)ANSI/CEA-2018 HTA (Hierarchical Task Analysis)CTT (ConcurTaskTree) TKS (Task Knowledge Structure)Diane+ TOOD (Task Object-Oriented Description)GOMS UsiXML
  • 12. Overview of task models (6/7)• ANSI/CEA-2018 meta-model TaskScript +init: boolean +platform: token +deviceType: token +applicable: string Task Model 0..* +about: URI 1..* role Task Task Relationship 1..* 1..* +name: string +id: ID +type: ceaDataType +description: string +slot: ceaSlotName +precondition: string +postcondition: string TaskModelScript 0..* +task: QName +model: URI +init: boolean +platform: token Decomposition +deviceType: token TemporaryRelationships +applicable: string 0..* agent instrument concept input output +verb: string +name: string +name: string +type: string +type: string +modified: string binding Binary Unary step applicablelocation theme +name: string +slot: string +task: string +value: string +requires: string +ordered: boolean sequential Choice Concurrency optional iteration
  • 13. Overview of task models (7/7)• CTT meta-model TaskModel Task +id: string +name: string Role +type: string TaskRelationships 1..* 1..* +category: string +id: string +frequency: string +name: string +platform: string +description: string +precondition: string +duration: time 0..1 Action 0..* TemporalRelationships Decomposition +id: string +name: string +type: string 1..* Object Unary Binay +name: strig +type: string +class: string 1..* +accesMode: string +cardinality: string Choice OrderIndependence Inerleaving Disabling SequentialEnabling Optional Iterative SequentialEnablingInformqtionPassing Synchronization SuspendResume Cooperative
  • 14. Task Modeling Operators
  • 15. AMBOSS A multi-user interaction meta-model (1/8)ANSI/C UsiXMLEA-2018 MDDUI: CTT GUIDiane+ AR Multi-userGOMS Abstraction interaction 3DUI meta-model GTA VocalUI HTA HapticUI Physical TKS UITOOD Multimo dalUIUsiXML
  • 16. Dynamicity High Color is useful for identifying Moderate the concepts used in the None design and implementation of the workflow editor
  • 17. A multi-user interaction meta-model (3/8)
  • 18. A multi-user interaction meta-model (4/8)Marco de Referencia
  • 19. A multi-user interaction meta-model (5/8) Paso 1
  • 20. A multi-user interaction meta-model (6/8) Paso 2
  • 21. A multi-user interaction meta-model (7/8) Paso 3
  • 22. A multi-userinteractionmeta-model (8/8)
  • 23. Conclusion (1/2)• Task models show a variety of concepts and relationships, we analyzed them in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today´s multi-user interaction task modeling.• After the analysis of task models, a multi-users interaction meta-model was generated in order to cover the principal characteristics required to work with multiplicity entities playing a role.
  • 24. Conclusion (2/2)• Our meta-model tries to cover the principal aspect required to support group work, it include process, tasks, task operators (including collaboration relationship), actions, objects, resources, groups (as an attribute), organizational units, jobs, agendas, goals and rules (both of them as attributes).• In a future work, we would like to integrate in our comparative analysis other task models that are focused on multi-users interaction. Also, it would be interested to integrate a task analysis part, until now
  • 25. Join us @usixmlhttp://www.facebook.com/UsiXML BUAP
  • 26. User Interface eXtensible Markup Languagehttp://www.usixml.orghttp://www.usixml.euRegister as a member of the UsiXML End-User Club athttp://www.usixml.eu/end_user_clubFor more information and downloading,http://www.lilab.eu
  • 27. ContactDra. Josefina Guerrero-García jguerrero@cs.buap.mxDr. Juan Manuel González-Calleros juan.gonzalez@cs.buap.mx @Juan__Gonzalez

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