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Présentation d'un mémoire à la Louvain School of Management

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This presentation contains the slides of the course entitled "Présentation d'un mémoire LSM" done on April 28th, 2014. The record of this course is available at …

This presentation contains the slides of the course entitled "Présentation d'un mémoire LSM" done on April 28th, 2014. The record of this course is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsNTU4KPyOE

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  • 1. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Jean Vanderdonckt Louvain School of Management Université catholique de Louvain Place des Doyens, 1 – B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium jean.vanderdonckt@uclouvain.be – http://www.uclouvain.be/jean.vanderdonckt Présentation d’un mémoire
  • 2. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Place des Doyens, 1 – B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium http://www.lilab.be, http://www.lilab.eu, http://www.lilab.info Louvain Interaction Laboratory (LILab)
  • 3. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Who is teaching? • Jean VANDERDONCKT – Lic. & Agreg. Mathematics, Univ. Namur, 1987 – Lic. & Master in Computer Science, Univ. Namur, 1989 – PhD in Computer Science, Univ. Namur, 1997 – Post-doc in eLearning, Univ. Lille 1, 1998 – Post-doc in HCI, Stanford Univ., 2000 • Researcher in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) since 1988 • Full professor at UCL, President of LSM Research Institute • Involvement in various R&D projects – local level, Walloon Region – Federal level, Belgium – In Europe and outside (e.g., with USA) • Scientific coordinator of the UsiXML Consortium • See profile at – DBLP: http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/pers/hd/v/Vanderdonckt:Jean – Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=U-FgGrkAAAAJ&hl=fr – Microsoft Academic: http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Author/495619.aspx – ArnetMiner: http://arnetminer.org/person/j-vanderdonckt-1306161.html 3
  • 4. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Who is teaching? • LinkedIn Profile: http://www.linkedin.com/in/jeanvdd • Academia Profile: http://uclouvain.academia.edu/JeanVanderdonckt • Slides: http://www.slideshare.net/jeanvdd • Books 4
  • 5. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Quelques recommandations • Adopter une présentation en pyramide – Titre (sous-titre) – Objectif central du mémoire: une phrase – Décomposer l’objectif en sous-objectifs – Méthodologie de la recherche • Méthode • Résultats • Discussion Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 5
  • 6. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Quelques recommandations • Structurer en grandes étapes – Titre & objectif central du mémoire: une phrase – Contexte du problème • Situation existante • Problèmes rencontrés • Problème à traiter: il doit être – Original – Ouvert – Non trivial – Non encore résolu – Méthodologie de la recherche • Méthode (y compris revue de la littérature) • Résultats • Discussion Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 6
  • 7. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Quelques recommandations • Structurer en grandes étapes – Conclusion • Résumé des apports – Théoriques (ou conceptuels) – Méthodologiques – Empiriques – Autres • Bilan – Avantages vs inconvénients • Travaux futurs – Court-terme – Moyen-terme Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 7
  • 8. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Quelques recommandations • Raconter une histoire – Partir d’un point de départ (acquis – As Is) – Développer la méthodologie de recherche • Etape par étape • Schéma : méthode – résultats – discussion • Ne pas tout présenter en une fois • Raisonner par analogie, généralisation • Un exemple – plusieurs résultats – Aboutir à une fin (à acquérir - To be) Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 8
  • 9. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Séminaire de méthodolo 9 Mapping Example: Euros • Size::value
  • 10. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Mapping variables Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 10
  • 11. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Mapping variables • Diagramme de Kiviatt Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 11
  • 12. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Comparer avant/après 12Source: http://www.theusrus.de/blog/too-hot-to-handle/ • How they should be presented (e.g., in the US)
  • 13. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Quels sont les pièges à éviter? • Les 7 péchés de spécification de Meyer Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 13 Sin Representation Observed frequency Bruit Ø  High at beginning, low after (students add unspecified elements) Silence  Ø Moderate (usually simply forgotten) Surspecification  Very low Contradiction  Moderate (unnoticed) Ambiguité  High (no unicity, duplication) Référence en avant  {o} … Low Vœu pieu  Low
  • 14. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Cameleon Reference Framework (CRF) Final User Interface (FUI) Concrete User Interface (CUI) Abstract User Interface (AUI) Task & Domain (T&D) Context of use User Platform Environment Final User Interface (FUI) Concrete User Interface (CUI) Abstract User Interface (AUI) Task & Domain (T&D) Context of use User Platform Environment Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 14
  • 15. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Classical path for complete forward engineering Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 15
  • 16. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths for platform adaptation Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 16
  • 17. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths for platform adaptation Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 17 User Platform Environment Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI
  • 18. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 18 Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI User Platform Environment Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI
  • 19. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 19 Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI User Platform Environment Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI Tasks Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI
  • 20. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 20 User Platform Environment Tasks Android Final UI Abstract UI Concrete UI iOS Final UI Windows Phone Final UI HTML Final UI
  • 21. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 21 User Platform Environment Tasks Final UI1 Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UI2 Final UIn …
  • 22. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 22 User Platform Environment Tasks Concrete UI1 Final UI1 Abstract UI Concrete UI2 Final UI2 Concrete UIn Final UIn … …
  • 23. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 23 User Platform Environment Tasks Abstract UI1 Concrete UI1 Final UI1 Abstract UI2 Concrete UI2 Final UI2 Abstract UIn Concrete UIn Final UIn … … …
  • 24. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 24 User Platform Environment Tasks1 Abstract UI1 Abstract UI2 Concrete UI2 Final UI2
  • 25. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Multi-path development based on CRF • Potential paths Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 25 Final UI1ms Final UI1m1 Concrete UI1m Concrete UI12 Tasks Abstract UI1 Concrete UI11 Final UI1m1 User Platform Environm ent Abstract UI2 Abstract UIn Final UI12r Final UI122 Final UI121 Final UI11p Final UI112 Final UI111 Final UInus Final UInu2 Concrete UInu Concrete UIn2 Concrete UIn1 Final UInu1 Final UIn2r Final UIn22 Final UIn21 Final UIn1p Final UIn12 Final UIn11 Concrete UI2j Concrete UI22 Concrete UI21 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
  • 26. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Zone of Proximal Flow Extract of Figure from Repenning, A. "Programming Goes to School", B. CACM, 55, 5, May, 2012. Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 26
  • 27. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Zone of Proximal Development http://lmrtriads.wikispaces.com/file/view/zpdgraph.jpg/74751165/zpdgraph.jpg Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 27
  • 28. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • RE pour le graphisme : – utiliser une hiérarchie de concepts Peu Plus Encore plus Davantage Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 28
  • 29. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • RE pour les diagrammes : – utiliser un arbre de décision pour guider l'utilisateur pour donner une réponse appropriée dans des conditions diverses Nbre-valeurs-choisir = 1 Type-dom = inconnu : champ d'édition uni-linéaire profilé Type-dom = connu Nbre-valeurs-possibles [2,3] Densité-FL = faible : bouton radio Densité-FL = élevée : boîte à options Nbre-valeurs-possibles [4,Nmag] Densité-FL = faible : bouton radio + boîte de regroupement Densité-FL = élevée : boîte à options Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 29
  • 30. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Mise en évidence par la taille (maximum 3) gggggggggggggggggggggggggggg Taille 1 (petit) Taille 2 (normal) Taille 3 (mis en évidence) Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 30
  • 31. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Mise en évidence par les symboles (max. 5) Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 31
  • 32. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Mise en évidence par le contraste (maximum 3) Video normal Video inversé Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 32
  • 33. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Mise en évidence par la texture (max. 4) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1er trim. 2e trim.3e trim.4e trim. Est Ouest Nord Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 33
  • 34. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Eviter les vibrations Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 34
  • 35. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Mise en évidence par la couleur (de 6 à 8) Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 35
  • 36. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Synthèses additives et soustractive • Utiliser des couleurs opposées Jaune sur fond bleu Jaune sur fond rouge Bleu sur fond blanc Rouge sur magenta Cyan sur fond vert Bleu sur fond noir Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 36
  • 37. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1.3 Règles ergonomiques • Legibility of fonts Table 1. The twelve fonts studied (View a sample of each font type) Sans Serif Fonts Serif Fonts Ornate Fonts Agency FB (Agency) Arial Comic Sans MS (Comic) Tahoma Verdana Courier New (Courier) Georgia Goudy Old Style (Goudy) Century Schoolbook (Schoolbook) Times New Roman (Times) Bradley Hand ITC (Bradley) Monotype Corsiva (Corsiva) Source: Michael Bernard, Melissa Mills, Michelle Peterson, & Kelsey Storrer, A Comparison of Popular Online Fonts: Which is Best and When? Usability News, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2001. http://psychology.wichita.edu/surl/usability_news.html Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 37
  • 38. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Visual variables - attributes • position – changes in the x, y (z) location • size – change in length, area or repetition • shape – infinite number of shapes • value – changes from light to dark • orientation – changes in alignment • colour – changes in hue at a given value • texture – variation in pattern • motion Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 38
  • 39. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Which coding scheme? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 39
  • 40. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Visual variables - characteristics • Different variable attributes may be: – selective is a change enough to allow us to select it from a group? – associative is a change enough to allow us to perceive them as a group? – quantitative is there a numerical reading obtainable from changes in this variable? – order are changes in this variable perceived as ordered? – length across how many changes in this variable are distinctions perceptible? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 40
  • 41. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Position • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length 100 0 100 Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 41
  • 42. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length – theoretically infinite but practically limited – association and selection ~ 5 and distinction ~ 20 Size > >> > > > =4 X ? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 42
  • 43. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length - infinite variation Shape >> >> > > > Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 43
  • 44. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Shape Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 44
  • 45. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Value • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length – theoretically infinite but practically limited – association and selection ~ < 7 and distinction ~ 10 < < < < < < Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 45
  • 46. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Color • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length – theoretically infinite but practically limited – association and selection ~ < 7 and distinction ~ 20 > > > > > > >> Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 46
  • 47. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Color Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 47
  • 48. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Encoding color • Common advice says use a rainbow scale – Marcus, Murch, Healey – problems with rainbows Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 48
  • 49. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 49
  • 50. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 50
  • 51. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 51
  • 52. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Orientation • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length – ~5 in 2D; ? in 3D < < < < < < < ? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 52
  • 53. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Texture • selective • associative • quantitative • order • length – theoretically infinite > > > > Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 53
  • 54. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Motion Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 54
  • 55. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 10 100 1000 10000 (Amount of end users) (Amount of interactive systems) 50 500 5000 50000 1 system for 100 users 1 system for 1 user 2 or 3 systems for 1 user 10 to 50 systems for 1 user [Weiser, 1998] [Forrester Research, 2002] Why multiple platforms? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 55
  • 56. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Unit Sales (per thousand) 0 100.000 200.000 300.000 400.000 500.000 600.000 700.000 800.000 900.000 1.000.000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Mobile Terminals PC units [Pierce et al.,2004] Which platforms should be supported? • Some reasons – Sales increase – Capabilities increase Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 56
  • 57. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Which platforms should be supported? • Break-even point before 2014 [MEE 2010] Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 57
  • 58. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S For which type of user? Web users 100% Multi-platform users 52% Everywhere users 30% Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 58
  • 59. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S For which type of user? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 59
  • 60. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Consequence: transcoding needed Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 60
  • 61. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Example of animated transition • PivotViewer Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 61[www.silverlight.net/learn/pivotviewer/]
  • 62. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Example of animated transition • InfoVis Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 62[Elmqvist et al., 2008]
  • 63. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Example of animated transition • Transition between statistical graphics Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 63[Heer, Robertson, 2007]
  • 64. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Example of animated transition • Adaptive Layout Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 64[Plomp & Keranen, NordiCHI'2002]
  • 65. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S When use an animated transition? • Transition types Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 65 Icon Name: definition Horizontal scroll from right: to display the next element from a sequence of elements Horizontal scroll from left: to display the previous element from a sequence of elements Vertical scroll from bottom: to proceed with a step-by-step reasoning, a continuous subject or a long passing over, or a movement Vertical scroll from top: to move back in a step-by-step reasoning, a continuous subject or a long passing over, or a movement Diagonal replacement from top/bottom left corner: to go back to the previous page or screen or element Diagonal replacement from top/bottom right corner: to move to next page or screen or UI element Venetian blinds: to present a completely different topic, to provide a feeling of coordinated time, to convey a significant transition Barn door close: to close a transient screen (e.g., an information screen, the About… splash screen), to close a current scene, to signify game over Barn door open: to open a transient screen, to initiate a new step, to open a new window or UI element, to launch a game, a simulation Iris open: to show more detailed information about a particular topic Iris close: to show more general information about a particular topic
  • 66. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S When use an animated transition? Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 66[Baecker, Small, Mander ,2001] • Use animation – to draw the audience's attention to a single element out of several, or to alert people to updated information – to indicate the function of a hot spot (for example, a moving hiker could indicate the current location of Mungo Park adventurers) – to draw attention to changes from one state to another (for example, animated map area changes could indicate deforestation over time). – to demonstrate navigation in a particular direction (for example, a simple page-flip animation could easily distinguish forward from backward movement – to create icons for actions that can't be adequately expressed with a flat, static picture • Permanently moving (looping) animations should rarely be included on a Web page because they will make it very hard for your audience to concentrate on other page content. Research suggests that movement in our peripheral vision can dominate our attention. Research also indicates that moving text is harder to read than static text
  • 67. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S When use an animated transition? • A number of visual effects are available. For global changes to the entire screen these are the cut, fade in and fade out, dissolve, wipe, overlap, and multiple exposure. Locally, within a region of the screen, pop on and pop off, pull down and pull up, flip, and spin can be used • Note: Visual effects should be used carefully. When employed too often, they will be fatiguing or even annoying or distressing to the user • Animation covers a range of creative techniques and media, from three-dimensional figures captured on film to wholly computer-generated images. Typical for animation is the rapid and continuous change of the graphical objects making up the animation • The dynamic of animation can be used to direct the user's attention to a specific point – Time and movement can be visualised by animation. – Animation can be used to show an invisible process. It enables the simulation of processes which are too dangerous or difficult to perform directly. – Animation of structures is useful for the exploration of complex environments. – Animation can be used for gradual illustration of a content. – Complex contents (e.g. process, function) can be simplified by animation. – Animation can be used to show the reaction on an interaction Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 67[Baecker, Small, Mander ,2001]
  • 68. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S How to do an animated transition? • Design – An animation sequence should be short – The direction of movement influence the meaning of the information conveyed – Animation should be supported by sound – Animation techniques for global changes to the entire screen are cut, fade in and fade out, dissolve, wipe, overlap, and multiple exposure – Animation techniques for local changes within a region of the screen are pop on and pop off, pull down and pull up, flip, and spin • Interaction – The user should be able to interrupt the animation sequence at any time – The user should be able to repeat parts of the animation – The user should be able to control the animation playing speed (e.g. fast forward) – The user may manipulate an animated object Séminaire de méthodologie du mémoire 68[Ware ,2004]
  • 69. E X C E L L E N C E & E T H I C S I N B U S I N E S S Questions? IHDCM030 Interfaces homme-machine 69

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