Gun Vision I - Seeing and Shooting (Braddock)Presentation Transcript
John James Audubon, Mocking Bird , 1825 Hand-colored engraving with etching and aquatint, 33 ¼ x 23 ¾ in, from The Birds of America , pl. 21 Seeing and Shooting: Audubon and the Beginnings of Gun Vision Alan C. Braddock
John James Audubon, Mocking Bird (Northern Mockingbird) , 1825, detail Hand-colored engraving with etching and aquatint, 33 ¼ x 23 ¾ in, from The Birds of America , pl. 21 Audubon, 1826 Journal , Edinburgh, October 27, 1826, Friday : “ Now that I found the Steam was High, that perhaps some exploxion might be produced, I exibited the Rattlesnake attackd by the Mocking Birds—this had the desired Effect—the Lady was pleased …”
John James Audubon, Mocking Bird , 1825 Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 , 1912 Oil on canvas, 57 x 38 in., Philadelphia Museum of Art Audubon, 1826 Journal , Edinburgh, October 27, 1826 : “ Now that I found the Steam was High, that perhaps some exploxion might be produced, I exibited the Rattlesnake attackd by the Mocking Birds—this had the desired Effect” New York Times , 1913 : “ An explosion in a shingle factory …”
Robert Burleigh, illustrated by Wendell Minor, Into the Woods: John James Audubon Lives His Dream (Atheneum, 2003)
Jennifer Armstrong, with illustrations by Joseph A. Smith, Audubon: Painter of Birds in the Wild Frontier (Abrams, 2003) Barbara Brenner, On the Frontier with Mr. Audubon (Boyds Mills Press, 1977)
John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet Painting , 1885 Oil on canvas, 21 ¼ x 25 ¼ in., Tate Gallery, London Barbara Brenner, On the Frontier with Mr. Audubon (Boyds Mills Press, 1977)
John Syme, John James Audubon , 1826 Oil on canvas, 35 x 27 in., White House Collection, Washington, D.C.
John James Audubon, Self-Portrait , 1826 Graphite on paper, Private collection
G. P. A. Healy, John James Audubon , 1838 Oil on canvas, 35 x 27 in., Museum of Science, Boston
John W. Audubon, John James Audubon , 1843 Oil on canvas, 45 x 35 in., American Museum of Natural History, N. Y.
Audubon memorabilia (hat, parflêche, shotgun, pistol, war club, pipe/tomahawk, axe) American Museum of Natural History, New York
Shotgun owned by Audubon, early 1800s American Museum of Natural History, New York British double-barreled muzzle-loading percussion shotgun, early 1800s Steve Carpenteri, ed., Antique Guns: The Collector’s Guide , rev. ed. (Stoeger Publishing, 2005)
Victor G. and John W. Audubon, John James Audubon , 1841 Oil on canvas, 44 x 60 in., American Museum of Natural History, New York
Thomas Cole , Daniel Boone at His Cabin at Great Osage Lake, 1826 Oil on canvas, 38 ¼ x 42 5/8 in., Mead Art Museum, Amherst College
Cole , Daniel Boone at His Cabin …, 1826, detail Oil on canvas, 38 ¼ x 42 5/8 in., Mead Art Museum, Amherst College Victor G. and John W. Audubon, John James Audubon , 1841 Oil on canvas, 44 x 60 in., American Museum of Natural History, New York
John James Audubon, Daniel Boone , c. 1810 Oil on canvas, 36 x 31 cm., Audubon Center, Henderson, KY John James Audubon, “Colonel Boon,” in Ornithological Biography , 1832, vol. 1, p. 503
George Caleb Bingham, Shooting for the Beef , 1850 Oil on canvas, 33 3/8 x 49 in., Brooklyn Museum, New York
Audubon, Mississippi River Journal Fri., Nov. 10, 1820 : “ saw a fine Black Hawk … & Black Gull,— Shott Two Ducks” Wed., Dec. 6, 1820 : “ saw 2 Large White Cranes with Black Tips—too shy to get in shooting distance” Wed., Dec. 20, 1820 : “Cummings Shot at an Ivory Billed Wood Pecker Picus Principallis broke his Wing and When he Went to take it up it Jump up and Claimed a tree, as fast as Squirel to the Very Top, he gave it up having but a few Loads of Shot —Joseph Came and Saw it— Shot at it and brought him down” Thurs., Dec. 21, 1820 : “ Saw in the Afternoon a Black Hawk , a flock of Pelicans at which I shot at about 200 yards as near as I could approach, without effect ” Fri., Dec. 22, 1820 : “ saw Three Black Hawks , Shot at this Twice…” Sun., Aug. 12, 1821 : “I Eyed it particularly and saw it Moved, I Shot at it … Arrived at the Swamp and then saw a great Number of Small Birds; Shot a beautifull new species of Fly Catcher … I had the pleasure of seing Two that appeared Much alike, they were quarelling when I Shot at them”
Audubon, Missouri River Journals Thurs., May 4, 1843 : “Bell shot a Gray Squirrel which I believe to be the same as our Sciurus Carolinensis . Friend Harris shot two or three birds, which we have not yet fully established, and Bell shot one Lincoln’s Finch … We saw Cerulean Warblers, Hooded Flycatchers, Kentucky Warblers, [proceeds to list many more species] … Here we killed and saw all that is enumerated above.” Sat. May 6, 1843 : “We took our guns and went off, but the wind was so high we saw but little; I shot a Wild Pigeon and a Whippoorwill, female, that gave me great trouble, as I never saw one so remarkably wild before. Bell shot two Gray Squirrels and several Vireos, and Sprague, a Kentucky Warbler. Traces of Turkeys and of Deer were seen . We also saw three White Pelicans. … We also procured a White-eyed and a Warbling Vireo, and shot a male Wild Pigeon. Saw a Gopher throwing out the dirt with his fore feet and not from his pouches. I was within four or five feet of it. Shot a Humming-bird, saw a Mourning Warbler, and Cedar birds.” Tues., May 23, 1843 : “Harris shot a common Rabbit and one Lark Finch. Bell and Sprague saw several Meadow-larks, which I trust will prove new, as these birds have quite different notes and songs from those of our eastern birds.”
John James Audubon, Roseate Tern , 1834 Hand-colored engraving with etching and aquatint, 19 ½ x 12 ¼ in., from The Birds of America , pl. 240 Audubon, “Roseate Tern,” Ornithological Biography , 3:297-98: “ While in search of prey, they carry the bill in the manner of the Common Tern, that is perpendicularly downward, plunge like a shot , with wings nearly closed, so as to immerse part of the body, and immediately reascend.”
Audubon, “Common Loon,” Ornithological Biography , 4:43: “ Calculate, if you can, the speed of its flight, as it shoots across the sky …” Robert Havell after John James Audubon, Common Loon , 1830 Hand-colored engraving on paper, 41 ½ x 28 ½ in., from The Birds of America
Audubon, “Golden Eagle,” Ornithological Biography : “ Although possessed of a powerful flight, it has not the speed of many Hawks, nor even of the White-headed Eagle. It cannot, like the latter, pursue and seize on the wing the prey it longs for, but is obliged to glide down through the air for a certain height to insure the success of its enterprise. The keenness of its eye , however, makes up for this defect, and enables it to spy, at a great distance, the objects on which it preys; and it seldom misses its aim , as it falls with the swiftness of a meteor towards the spot on which they are concealed.” John James Audubon, Golden Eagle , 1833 Watercolor, pastel, graphite, and selective glazing on paper, 38 x 25 ½ in., The New-York Historical Society
Audubon, Missouri River Journals , April 25, 1843: “ … antelopes are beautiful small animals and run like the wind, but not so fast as a rifle-ball .” J. T. Bowen after John Woodhouse Audubon, Prong-horned Antelope , 1845 Hand-colored lithograph, 22 x 28in., from The Vivaparous Quadrupeds of North America , pl. 77
J. T. Bowen after John Woodhouse Audubon, Black-tailed Deer , 1845 Hand-colored lithograph, 22 x 28in., from The Vivaparous Quadrupeds of North America , pl. 78
Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse in Motion , 1878
Étienne-Jules Marey, Pelican in Flight , 1882
Étienne-Jules Marey, Observations sur le Vol des Oiseaux (Paris, 1890)
Étienne-Jules Marey, Observations sur le Vol des Oiseaux (Paris, 1890) Étienne-Jules Marey, Observations sur le Vol des Oiseaux (Paris, 1890), p. 3: “ Audubon spent a great part of his life traveling through the forests and plains of America in order to find material for his beautiful pictures of the birds. Through him, we know the habits and the type of flight of a great number of species observed in freedom, in the most various circumstances. When Audubon describes certain distant spectacles, the migration of Pigeons, for example, the flight of the Frigate Bird, the White-headed Eagle pursuing its prey, his accounts of full of interest; he added important remarks on the characteristics of flight.”
“ There are no Game Laws for those who Hunt with a Kodak,” 1905 Illustrated advertisement published in The Cosmopolitan , 1905
“ Hunting with a Camera—A Snap-shot at a Moose,” 1897 Engraved illustration, Harper’s Weekly , October 2, 1897
Oxford English Dictionary , 2 nd ed. (1989)
snap-shot, n .
a. A quick or hurried shot taken without deliberate aim, esp. one at a rising bird or
quickly moving animal.
1808 P. HAWKER Diary (1893) I. 11 Almost every pheasant I fired at was a snap shot among
the high cover.
1846 GREENER Sci. Gunnery 164 Were a bird to spring in a situation where we could get
only a snap shot.
2. a. An instantaneous photograph, esp. one taken with a hand-camera. Also transf. and fig.
[ 1860 HERSCHEL in Photogr. News 11 May 13 The possibility of taking a photograph, as it
were by a snap-shot of securing a picture in a tenth of a second of time.]
1890 Rev. Reviews II. 489/2 The annexed snap-shots were taken with a hand camera.
1903 ‘O. HENRY’ in Everybody's Mag. Aug. 194/1 You see a man doing nothing but loafing
around making snapshots.
Oxford English Dictionary , 2 nd ed. (1989) shot, n . 7e. (cf. SHOOT v. 22f); a picture (or sequence of pictures) continuously shot by a single film or television camera; the action or process of taking such a picture. 1889 Brit. Jrnl. Photogr. XXXVI. 605/2, I developed some instantaneous shots. 1895 Outing XXVI. 33/2, I must have a camera shot at this. 1923 ‘B. M. BOWER’ Parowan Bonanza xxvi. 303 Bill and Tommy were both below examining the effect of their ‘shots’ of the evening before.
The Audubon Magazine , vol. 1, February 1887, “Published in the Interests of The Audubon Society for the Protection of Birds,” founded 1886 by George Bird Grinnell (nationally incorporated 1905) George Bird Grinnell, 1849-1938