Scientific Management Jeannifer B. Villanueva 11-MPMG-011 Dean F. Tolentino
Scientific Management• a term coined in 1910 to describe the system of industrial management created and promoted by Frederick W. Taylor (1856– 1915) and his followers.• also called Taylorism, it was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows• main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management.• any system of organization that clearly spelled out the functions of individuals and groups
The Principles of Scientific Management: a MonographThe Principles of Scientific Management is a monograph published by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911. This influential monograph, which laid out the principles of scientific management, is a seminal text of modern organization and decision theory and has motivated administrators and students of managerial technique.Taylor was an American manufacturing manager, mechanical engineer, and then a management consultant in his later years. He is often called "The Father of Scientific Management." His approach is also often referred to, as Taylors Principles, or Taylorism.The monograph consisted of three sections: Introduction, Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Scientific Management, and Chapter 2 : The Principles of Scientific Management.
IntroductionThe 1st goal for all good systems is to develop first class men. Taylor pointed out that this can be achieved by the following:1. Point out the great loss the country is suffering through inefficiency in almost all of daily acts.2. Try to convince that the remedy for this inefficiency lies in systematic management, rather than in searching for some unusual or extraordinary man.3. To prove that best management is a true science, resting upon clearly defined laws, rules, and principles, as a foundation, and to show that the fundamental principles of scientific management are applicable to all kinds of human activities, from simplest individual acts to the work of our great corporations, which call for the most elaborate cooperation. And, to convince the that whenever these principles are correctly applied, results are astounding.
Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Scientific ManagementTaylor argued the following: that the principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee that the most important object of both the employee and the management should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do the highest class of work for which his natural abilities fit him. that maximum prosperity can exist only as the result of maximum productivity, both for the shop and individual,Rebuked the idea that the fundamental interests of employees and employers are antagonistic.
According to Taylor, there were three reasons for the inefficiency of workers:• First. The fallacy, which has from time immemorial been almost universal among workmen, that a material increase in the output of each man or each machine in the trade would result in the end in throwing a large number of men out of work.• Second. The defective systems of management which are in common use, and which make it necessary for each workman to soldier, or work slowly, in order that he may protect his own best interests.• Third. The inefficient rule-of-thumb methods, which are still almost universal in all trades, and in practicing which our workmen waste a large part of their effort.
Chapter 2: Principles of Scientific Management• The development of a science for each element of a mans work to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods.• The scientific selection, training and development of workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves as best they could.• The development of a spirit of hearty cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work would be carried out in accordance with scientifically devised procedures.• The division of work between workers and management in almost equal shares, each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted instead of the former condition in which responsibility largely rested with the workers.
Under the management of "initiative and incentive", the first three elements often exist in some form, but their importance is minor. However, under scientific management, they "form the very essence of the whole system".Taylors summary of the fourth point is: under the management of "initiative and incentive" practically the whole problem is "up to the workman," while under scientific management fully one-half of the problem is "up to the management." It is up to the management to determine the best method to complete each task through a time and motion study, to train the worker in this method, and keep individual records for incentive based pay.Taylor warned about attempting to implement parts of scientific management without accepting the whole philosophy, stating that too fast of a change was often met with trouble, strikes, and failure.
Taylor devotes most of the remainder of the work to providing case studies to support his case, including:• His work on the shoveling coal and his studies on the handling of pig iron, greatly contributed to the analysis of work design and gave rise to method study.• The inspection of small polished steel balls for bicycle bearings• Introduction of slide rules described in "On the Art of Cutting Metals" to a well run machine shop.
In the 1890s, Taylor also introduced the ff:• accounting systems that permitted managers to use operating records with greater effectiveness,• production systems that allowed managers to know more precisely what was happening on the shop floor,• incentive schemes,• a piece-rate systems on production management to encourage employees to follow instructions.• discovery of "high-speed steel," which improved the performance of metal cutting tools• systematic methods that led to an integrated view of managerial innovation.
A principle of Taylor’s work was stop-watching as the basis of observations to determine what workers were able to do. He started to break the timings down into the elements and coined the term ‘time study’.Taylor fashioned scientific management from systematic management. His extensive report on his work, "Shop Management," (1903), portrayed an integrated complex of systematic management methods, supplemented by refinements and additions, such as time study.Taylors impact has been so great because he developed a concept of work design, work-measurement, production control and other functions, that completely changed the nature of industry. Before scientific management, such departments as work study, personnel, maintenance and quality control did not exist. What was more his methods proved to be very successful.
Frank and Lilia GilbrethFrank Gilbreth (1868-1924) is best known for his work with construction workers on the efficiency of motion. He developed many of the concepts and applications that are now part of modern management techniques.With his wife and professional partner, Lillian, Gilbreth introduced the application of psychology to industrial management. He also developed intricate studies of motion that he adapted for use by injured soldiers and the physically disabled, as well as laborers. His work established that psychology and education are integral parts of successful management. Lilian helped industrial engineers see the importance of the psychological dimensions of work. She became the first American engineer ever to create a synthesis of psychology and scientific management. Lillian Gilbreth was the force behind her husbands career change - from construction to management. Together they became leaders in the new field of scientific industrial management.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth pioneered the field of motion study engineering which began in Franks early days as a brick layer. He studied the motions that bricklayers made, and found a way to reduce the number of movements to lay one brick from 18 down to six. At a time when an expert bricklayer was laying 125 bricks an hour, Gilbreth was able to lay 350 using his methods.In 1907, Frank met Frederick Winslow Taylor and became an admirer of the Taylor System of time study. The Gilbreths became deeply involved in scientific research and Frank was instrumental in creating the Taylor Society. In 1912, the Gilbreths left construction and focused their attention on scientific management consulting. They broke with Taylor in 1914 and formed their own form of scientific management, which focused on the human element as well as the technical.
Both Lillian and Frank Gilbreth believed that scientific management as formulated by Taylor fell short when it came to managing the human element on the shop floor. The Gilbreths helped formulate a constructive critique of Taylorism which had the support of other successful managers. They expanded Taylors methods in the early 1900s to develop "Time and Motion Studies“ which aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions.Although the work of the Gilbreths is often associated with that of Taylor, there was a substantial philosophical difference between the Gilbreths and Taylor. The symbol of Taylorism was the stopwatch; Taylor was primarily concerned with reducing process times. The Gilbreths, on the other hand, sought to make processes more efficient by reducing the motions involved. They saw their approach as more concerned with workers welfare than Taylorism, which workers themselves often perceived as primarily concerned with profit.
Lilian and Frank saw the need to improve worker satisfaction, which would in turn improve overall job performance and worker efficiency. Frank designed systems to ease worker fatigue and increase productivity by studying each movement a worker made, in a process he called micromotion study. The Gilbreths used still photographs and film strips to study worker movements in order to devise the “ One Best Way” to perform a task. They also saw the need to improve the physical comfort of the worker, and their innovations in office furniture design were ahead of their time, leading the way to the study of ergonomics.
Other Contributions of the GilbrethsDeveloped a set of standard motions that reduced all motions of the hand into some combination of 17 basic motions called "therbligs". These included grasp, transport loaded, and hold.Gave the idea that a surgical nurse serve as "caddy" (Gilbreths term) to a surgeon; providing surgical instruments as called for.Devised the techniques used by armies around the world to teach recruits how to rapidly disassemble and reassemble their weapons even when blindfolded or in total darkness.Their emphasis on the "one best way" and ‘therbligs’ predates the development of continuous quality improvement (CQI), and the late 20th century understanding that repeated motions can lead to workers experiencing repetitive motion injuries.
Contribution of Scientific Management Theory to present day:Adaptation of themes: analysis; synthesis; rationality; logic; workethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of bestpractices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake orto protect social status of particular workers w/ particular skillsets; knowledge transfer between workers and from workers intotools, processes, and documentation. transformation of craftproduction into mass production.The features of 20th century factory system such as: self-consciousmanagement, systematic planning, specialization of function, andhighly structured, formal relationships between managers andworkers were the legacy of systematic management especially ofTaylor and his disciples, the most important contributors to thecampaign for order and rationality in industry. They made scientificmanagement a malleable symbol of the potential of modernorganization for changing virtually every facet of contemporarylife.
"The old fashioned dictator does not exist underScientific Management. The man at the head of thebusiness under Scientific Management is governed by rules and laws which have been developed through hundreds of experiments just as much as the workman is, and the standards developed are equitable.“ *F.W.Taylor – Father of Scientific Management Thank you!