Overview of Coastal Management in thePhilippines Through the devolution of powers, LGUs possess broad governmental powers such as the duty to protect & manage the coastal and marine environments, impose local fishery revenues and taxes, to delineate their municipal waters and to allocate the use of resources within municipal waters. Municipalities and cities serve as the primary unit of governance for coastal management. The national government is mandated to consult with the local government units in their responsibility to manage and maintain ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction.
Statutes and regulations concerning coastal management have existed for decades. They clearly demonstrate, however, the lack of a single law or administrative decree directly related to integrated coastal management. Under current legislation, sectors and activities affecting the coastal environment are regulated through fragmented legislative mandates. In total, more than 20 government units exercise separate management powers and mandates over coastal uses and sectors. Other government bodies also serve as advisory and recommendatory councils. In the initial years’ problems with devolution varied from one municipality to another.
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) protects the environmental integrity of Philippine territorial waters, which comprise 220 million hectares and include the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The DENR has the specific mandate to manage mangrove and associated terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna within the marine zone.
The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture (DA), under the Fisheries Code exercises general jurisdiction over all waters outside of the municipal waters, all commercial fishing boats greater than 3 gross tons and shoreland aquaculture areas covered by fishpond lease agreements (FLAs).
Key issues on institutional arrangements and responsibilities for the implementation of coastal and fisheries legislation Weak institutional integration- there is a need for an integrated approach that considers both land based activities and its direct impact on coastal resource uses. Lack of viable fisheries management mechanisms- no clear fisheries management processes are implemented in coordination w/ NGA’s, LGU’s, municipal and commercial fisheries sector and other key stakeholders
Lack of institutional and local capacities for coastal management – limited capacity of NGA’s and LGU’s to manage coastal environments and resources Lack of institutional awareness and informed stakeholders in coastal management – increasing awareness using all channels and methods to improve local participation in the coastal and marine resource management
Ineffective enforcement of marine and coastal laws – conflicting policies caused by differing interpretations of the law, confusion of jurisdictional roles among authorized agencies and deputized local enforcers, selective enforcement, minimal punishment of offenders, lack of capacity for enforcement, lack of public awareness Coastal resource management – initiatives have failed even in areas where funding or projects are available due to diversity of issues in coastal areas that requires multi-sectoral collaboration, government commitment and endless resources
Sector policies and plans – uncoordinated sector-level management even within one government unit due to numerous policies and plans for both LGU’s and NGA’s;Integrated Coastal Resource Management Plans are developed by the LGU’s which aims to incorporate coastal resource management strategies into local development activities.
EMERGING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FORCOASTAL MANAGEMENT Intra-LGU arrangements focus on the relationship between municipal and barangay levels of government, POs, and other coastal stakeholders. Inter-LGU arrangements are established between municipal and provincial LGUs and between upland or adjacent LGUs to preserve critical ecosystem functions. Institutional arrangements between local and national govt agencies provide for resource sharing and technical assistance. Public-private sector partnerships are materializing as viable joint ventures for a wide range of environmental infrastructure and services. Community-based approaches that directly involve coastal stakeholders and assisting organizations are of paramount importance in the devolved functions.
Coastal Resource Management in thePhilippines: Sumilon Island, CebuThe first marine protected area (MPA) in the country established as a fish sanctuary was in 1974 on Sumilon Island, Cebu under the guidance of the Silliman University Marine Laboratory. The Sumilon Island fish sanctuary is often mentioned as the reason why coral reef fish sanctuaries contribute to improved reef fisheries management. The experiment in reef management which stopped all fishing on one part of the Sumilon Island reef for about 10 years, allowed researchers to collect substantial data on the effects of this kind of management of the coral reef and its related fisheries.
The benefits provided compelling evidence for fish biomass spillover from the sanctuary zone where no fishing is allowed (the “no-take” areas). Such evidence has been important in convincing scientists, reef managers, and fisherfolk that fish sanctuaries improve reef fisheries while benefiting fisherfolk in the area.Recent studies have not only indicated the beneficial effects of fish sanctuaries on fishery yields and coral reef protection, but also that people participating in such management efforts gain in a variety of ways, including through food security, cash income from tourism and pride in their protection role. (White et al. 1994, Katon et al. 1999, V ogt 1997).
Thank you!References:“Shared Responsibility of Fisheries Management in the Philippines” Jessica C. Muñoz; http://www.capri.cgiar.org/pdf/devolution_munoz.pdfCoastal Resource Management.pdf. ‘Philippines Environment Monitor 2005.’ siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPHILIPPINES/Resources/PEM05- ch2.pdfLegal and Jurisdictional Framework for Coastal Management., Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook Series No. 2 http://www.scribd.com/doc/34367726/Philippine-Coastal-Management- Guidebook-Series-No-2