Lec8 Hormonal Control

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Lec8 Hormonal Control

  1. 1. Animal Behavior: Hormonal Control ANIMALEHAVIOR LEC 3 ANIMAL BE ANIM Animal Behavior, Lec. 8, BIOL 4518
  2. 2. What do hormones do? <ul><li>Hormones are small molecules used to signal between cells </li></ul><ul><li>Used to coordinate among cells and systems in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate short-term (e.g., adreniline “fight or flight” response) and long-term (e.g. sensitivity to reproductive hormones) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do hormones do? <ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth/development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology/metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration (teleost fish) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Hormones and Behavior <ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair-bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger/Thirst drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Neuronal vs hormonal control <ul><li>Voluntary; Speed; Chemical release </li></ul><ul><li>General model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons detect environmental stimulus; hormones coordinate changes in systems throughout the body </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What are hormones? <ul><li>Small molecules used to signal among cells </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adreniline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin, vasopressin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens (e.g., testosterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens (e.g., estradiol) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What are hormones- types? <ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens (e.g., testosterone) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens (e.g., estradiol) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from chloresterol, lipid soluble, go straight to DNA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single peptides (chains of amino acids; via protein synthesis) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to surface receptor; secondary messenger involved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How do hormones work? <ul><li>Many require conversion to another state inside the cell </li></ul><ul><li>May require binding to a receptor on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within cell </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How do hormones work? <ul><li>Stimulate/inhibit release of other hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Influence rate of biochem reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change availability of rate-limitingn step enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase membrane permeability and availability of cofactors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis through gene action/RNA synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Vascularity increase (blood flow to tissues) </li></ul>
  10. 10. How do hormones work? <ul><li>Typically feedback system (endocrine system) </li></ul><ul><li>secondary hormone produced by target cell inhibits production by gland </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do hormones work? <ul><li>Some are produced and stored in major glands (e.g., oxytocin) </li></ul><ul><li>Others are produced for immediate action (e.g., steroids) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do hormones function? <ul><li>Releasing Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonad Releasing Hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Releasing hormones cause release of effectors hormones (e.g., vasopressin, oxytocin) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Where? <ul><ul><li>Classic view: Endocrine system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systemically, e.g., the endocrine system, where hormones are released to blood, circulate to targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other circ systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreatic islets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamo-hypophysial portal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locally: local synthesis and action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many cells can make molecules similar or identical to endocrine glands. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can target: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autocrine – same cell type (and itself) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paracrine – other cell types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine – system-wide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokines are a related class of molecules which are used to signal from cell to cell </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Neurons and Hormones <ul><li>Nerves detect external signals </li></ul><ul><li>Information conveyed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural control of endocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special neurons that release hormones directly into the bloodstream; instead of neurotransmitters!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer action potentials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormones are distinguished from neurotransmitters because response takes longer to develop and longer time </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hormones and behavior <ul><li>Target a wide range of behaviors from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social bonding (mother/child; oxytocin, vassopressin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poikilotherm chromatophores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hormones and Reproduction <ul><li>Tissue development is triggered by reproductive hormones (e.g., testes) </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of hormone/tissue development and reproductive behavior can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior and tissue development co-occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disassociated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior and tissue development are temporally displaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly have developed tissues require trigger for behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocoriticoids affect mood and taste perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones and behavior </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fight or flight <ul><li>Adreniline release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes blood supply to skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen airways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release stored erythrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase rate of blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial vessels constricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary elevation of pain threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piloerrection (hair stands on end) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ freeze” response </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Circadian rhythms <ul><li>Suprachiasmatic nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Severing </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone secretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoid sectretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal electrolyte secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain receptors for nuerotransmitters etc. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cytokines <ul><li>Cytokine characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polypeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy – functions of most cytokines can be performed by other cytokines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleiotropism single cytokine may have different functional effects even on the same cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Biphasic effect on immune systems of glucocorticoids – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short term => increase in immune function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long-term => suppression of immune function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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