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Lec 7 Rhythms

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Lec 7: Rhythms
      • HW2
        • In-class review and discussion of HW2
        • Handout “Guidelines for answering short answer questions”
        • Lecture clarification sympatric speciation, character displacement
      • Circadian Rhythms
    • 2. Animal Behavior, Lec. 6, BIOL 4518 Sympatric speciation
      • Create a species - >
        • How? restrict gene flow
        • Who? Among members of the same population
    • 3. Sympatric Speciation
        • Sympatric speciation is a theory
          • Does this happen in nature?
          • Why is it controversial?
          • Is instantaneous or gradual more likely to be a mechanism used?
    • 4. Sympatric speciation
      • Mechanisms for restricting gene flow in a population
        • Polyploidy
          • How does this work?
          • Is behavioral isolation involved?
    • 5. Reproductive character displacement
      • 2 Components
        • Female discrimination
          • females are choosy!
          • Females choose among variation in male traits
          • “Receiver preference function”
        • Male character divergence
          • Over time key traits in males become more and more different
          • Bimodal distribution
    • 6. Reproductive character displacement
      • How would it work?
      • What is reinforcement?
        • Is low hybrid fitness required?
      • How do hybrid offspring have low fitness?
    • 7. Reproductive character displacement
      • Evidence supporting this theory
        • Polyploid frogs
          • Character:
          • Female discrimination:
          • Cause of low hybrid fitness:
    • 8. Reproductive character displacement
      • Evidence supporting this theory
        • Polyploid frogs
          • Character: vocalization
          • Value which females discriminate: frequency of pulses
          • Cause of low hybrid fitness: 3N are not viable
        • Song bird
    • 9. Summary Reproductive Character Displacement and Sympatric Speciation
      • Sympatric
        • restrict gene flow within a pop.
        • Low hybrid fitness
      • Mechanisms
        • Instantaneous: Polyploidy
        • Gradual: Female discrimination and male character divergence
      • Why controversial?
    • 10. Geomagnetism: Earth's Magnetic Field Gary A. Glatzmaier
    • 11. Geomagnetism: Earth's Magnetic Field Gary A. Glatzmaier
      • Why does the Earth have a magnetic field
      • How is it generated?
        • Poorly understood
        • Hypothesis:
          • Iron-rich magma in the earth's crust rises with heat and sinks with cooling generating the field
    • 12. Geomagnetism: Earth's Geomagnetism: Earth's Magnetic Field: Animal navigation
      • Is it changing?
        • Yes!
        • Polarity changes
          • North and South magnetic poles reverse
          • Evidence in tectonic plates on sea floor that preserve the polarity as the new magma cools
        • Field strengthens and weakens
            • the dipole moment will decay in about 1,300 years.
      • How often does the magnetic field reverse?
        • During the past 100 million years, the reversal rates vary (5 thousand years to 50 million years).
        • Last reversed 750,000 - 780,000 years ago.
    • 13. Geomagnetism: Pigeon navigation
      • Pigeons navigate in overcast skies
      • Suggest they are using magnetic field
    • 14. Geomagnetism: Pigeon navigation
      • Pigeons navigate in overcast skies
      • Suggest they are using magnetic field
      • Evidence?
    • 15. Geomagnetism: Pigeon navigation
      • Pigeons navigate in overcast skies
      • Suggest they are using magnetic field
    • 16. Geomagnetism: Pigeon navigation
      • Pigeons navigate in overcast skies
      • Suggest they are using magnetic field
    • 17. Electromagnetic Fields: Animals
      • In addition to the use of the geomagnetic field for navigation,
      • Some animals generate their own electric field for example for prey detection
    • 18. Summary Geomagnetism, Electromagnetic fields
      • Geomagnetism
      • Electromagnetic fields generated by animals
    • 19. Time – circadian rhythm
      • Clock is affected by environmental cues
      • Clock is not affected by environmental cues
      • Evidence:
      • Conclusion – somewhere in the middle; free-running cycle updated with some environmental cues
    • 20. Organization of clocks and behavior
      • Chemical clock
      • Clock located in central place
      • Receives input and adjusts
      • Sends signals to other behaviors
    • 21. Organization of clocks and behavior
      • Chemical clock
        • per PER, tau CKl e
      • Clock located in central place
        • Hypothalamus
          • Suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN)
      • Receives input and adjusts
        • e.g., light on retina
      • Sends signals to other behaviors
        • PK2
    • 22. How is a clock made
      • Endogenous
      • Pacemaker, master clock
      • Free-running cycle
      • Gene product feedback
    • 23. How is a clock made
    • 24. Cycles/Rhythms
      • Single cycles
        • Daily
        • Lunar
        • Tidal
        • Seasonal
        • Annual
        • Multiple years
      • Combinations of cycles
    • 25. Cycles/Rhythms
    • 26. Circadian cycles
      • Absence of cues
        • Human sleep patterns
    • 27. Lunar Cycles
      • Lunar cycles
    • 28. Lunar cycles - cues
      • Hydrostatic pressure
      • Temperature
      • Salinity
      • Turbulence
      • Vibrations
      • Immersion
    • 29. Lunar Cycles - tides
    • 30. Tidal cycles
      • Intertidal pools of various heights
      • Protists
      • Encysted (18hr) and free swimming (6hr)
      • Cycle – remain in pools during flooding
      • Encyst for 2 high tides and one low tide
      • Faster rhythms and change in phase and duration on lower tide pools
    • 31. Which cycle is the cue?
      • Intertidal brown shrimp live in pools created at high tide
      • They are exposed to both diurnal and tidal cycles
      • What are cue are they using?
    • 32. Which cycle is the cue?
    • 33. Which cycle is the cue?
    • 34. Which cycle is the cue?
    • 35. Which cycle is the cue?
    • 36. Seasonal Cycles
      • Hibernation without external cues
    • 37. Multiple Years
      • Cicadas
      • Only in North America
      • Spend most of life in ground in larval stages
      • Emerge every 13 or 17 years
      • Co-occur every 221 years!
      • Emerge within a few days of each other
      • Several species identified
    • 38. Multiple Years
      • Can sympatric speciation occur by temporal displacement?
        • Why would this be controversial, given what we have been discussing?
      • What would you expect to observe if sympatric speciation occurred?
    • 39. Multiple Years
    • 40. Multiple Years
      • Character divergence
    • 41. Multiple Years
    • 42. Multiple Years
      • Suggests single gene change speciation event
    • 43. Summary on cicadas
      • Sympatric speciation through timing?
      • Character divergence
    • 44. Combinations of cycles
      • Ocean
        • Tidal cycles
    • 45. Relative vs. absolute time
    • 46. Clock shifts
      • Clock shifted pigeons change
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