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Male dominance hierarchy system established for mating
Males compete with each other until they win the right to be around a female unmolested by males until she is ready to mate. A losing male may mate with a female if more than one female is in estrous at a time
E.g., mountain sheep;
Exception – sneaker role, where very low ranking male mates with a female while more dominant males are fighting for highest rank.
Leks may last for weeks. Area is same year to year. Area offers no food or place to rest.
Number of copulations is highly skewed to one male with the territory in the center who may do 50-75% of the copulations (e.g., kobs and grouse), and neighbors may account for the remainder while the majority of males do not mate at all.