Lec 11 Habitat
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Lec 11 Habitat

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Lec 11 Habitat Lec 11 Habitat Presentation Transcript

  • Animal Behavior: Habitat Choice
  • Animal Behavior: Habitat Choice
    • Relates to Alcock Ch. 8
  • Announcements
    • Schedule:
      • This lecture will include lecture and lab time
      • Lectures will be on Alcock Ch. 8 and beginning of Alcock Ch. 10 &11
      • In-class discussion of homework on Ch. 5, Ch 6& 9 and Ch. 7 &8
      • Field Trip Vote (Nov 22, Dec 6)
  • Announcements
    • You will receive
      • Mouse ethogram labs
        • (use comments on zoo behavior study paper)
      • Datasheets from 2 nd lab
        • (use structure as a reference for zoo study)
    • Posted
      • Previous lecture
        • (Slideshare software)
      • Information for writing paper
      • Updated syllabus
  • Due dates/Deadlines
    • Due dates/deadlines:
      • Re-submission of pre-midterm homeworks is due November 20
      • Re-submission deadline for HW 6,7,8 (Ch. 5, Ch. 6&9, Ch. 7&8) is November 20
      • Posted on Nov 14 th is the information for structuring ethogram and zoo proposal.
      • You will receive zoo proposal revisions and the ethograms (I forgot to hand them out) on Tuesday the Nov 18th.
      • Zoo proposal is due Nov 25
      • Zoo paper is due December 2
      • Zoo oral presentations given on December 4
      • Note: There is a penalty in your grade for not completing homework on time
  • Review previous lecture
    • Review:
      • Theories to explain adaptive behavior
        • Game theory
          • Behavioral choices (strategies) in a social context)
        • Optimal theory
          • Optimizing a fitness proxy
          • e.g. optimal foraging theory
  • Habitat Choice and Feeding: Outline
    • Habitat selection
      • Source habitats (populations); sink habitats (populations)
    • Habitat preference
    • Dispersal
      • Inbreeding depression
    • Migration
      • Costs
      • Benefits
      • Migration as Conditional tactic
  • Habitat selection
    • Factors:
      • Resource availability
      • Competition for resources
  • Habitat selection and Competition
    • Competition influences habitat selection
      • Primarily measured by resource competition
  • Habitat selection and Competition
    • Example: Aphids
      • Location on leaf
  • Habitat selection and Competition
    • Game theory
      • High quality habitat vs low quality
      • Fitness tradeoff between high quality habitat and density of population such that individual fitness is high in lower quality, less dense habitat
  • Habitat selection and Competition
    • Trade-off between quality of rocks and size of territories in male lizards
    • Swarm of bees making a new hive, Distance of equally optimal habitat, more distant location is chosen
      • In areas where hives are bigger (northern Europe) and competition more intense, swarms move farther to found a new hive, than areas where hives are smaller (southern Europe)
  • Dispersal
    • Costs
      • Energy
      • Predation risk
      • Risk of not finding a habitat
  • Dispersal benefits
    • Reduced inbreeding depression
      • Inbreeding depression = increase risk when closely related individuals mate of getting both recessive alleles of damaging traits
    • Reduce competition (e.g., territorial disputes)
  • Dispersal cost/benefit tradeoffs
    • Is there a cost benefit tradeoff to dispersal?
    • Why/why not?
  • Dispersal cost/benefit tradeoffs
    • Energetics cost of flight (dispersal) vs. energy to reproduction
    • Experiment
      • Two phenotypes:
        • large wings (flight)
        • Small wings (no flight)
      • Inhibit formation of wings on large phenotype (juvenile hormone)
        • large wings (flight)
          • (less energy to reproduction)
        • large wings (no flight)
          • (greater energy to reproduction)
    • Therefore flight apparatus comes at a cost to reproductive output
  • Migration
    • Costs
    • benefits
  • White sharks – discoveries of migration and new mysteries of life history
      • Kevin C. Weng - University of Hawaii at Manoa
      • 30 September 2008
      • University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
  • Movement Ecology
    • Territorial
    • Nomadic
    • Migratory
  • Mammal Migration known in 1960
    • Grey whale
    • Eschrichtius gibbosus
    Gilmore 1960
  • Serventy 1967, Baker 1978 Bird: Migration Known in 1967 Short-Tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris
  • Distribution c. 1999
    • Patrol coast
    • Short acoustic tracks
    • (Carey, McCosker, Strong)
    Compagno 1984
  • Historical Records Precede Captain Cook Taylor 1985
  • HURL Sightings October 4, 2004, Makapuu: Terry Kerby & Amy Baco-Taylor
  • Jimmy Hall 28 Dec 2005, Haleiwa
  • Population Status
    • No population estimates
    • Seal colonies off California ~100s
    • Aggregation in S. Africa ~1000s
    • Aggregations in Australia ~100s
    Pyle, pers. com.; Cliff et al. 1996; Strong et al. 1996
  • Genetic Population Structure Reeb, unpublished: separate stock in E Pacific Pardini et al. Nature 2001: Separate stocks in South Africa and Australia ? ? ?
  • Mating ?
  • Reproductive Biology Pregnant White Sharks Mediterranean Japan Taiwan Australia New Zealand ? ? ?
  • Young-of-Year White sharks: Possible Parturition/Nursery Mediterranean Japan Australia New Zealand California Baja NE Atlantic South Africa
  • Long distance movement to Baja
  • Trophic Links
    • Stomach contents (Klimley 1985)
    • Ontogenetic diet shift:
      • < 340 cm: fish
      • > 340 cm: fish + mammals
      • (Estrada et al. 2006)
  • Seal behavior and distribution: predator avoidance (Le Bouef & Crocker 1985)
  •  
  • Pelagic Fishes can be Tracked with Recently Developed Tools
    • SPOT fin-mounted transmitter - Argos position
    Adult white shark PAT Tag - Temperature, Pressure, Light Juvenile white shark Salmon shark
  • Adult White Sharks: Farallon Islands, California
  • Monterey Bay Aquarium
  • White Shark Data
    • 20 white sharks tracked
    • 435 (401-457) cm total length (median Q1 Q3)‏
    • 3,336 total days of tracking
    • Track length 182 (85-217) days
    • Longest track 367 days
  • 03-583 Male 4.5 m 04-155 Male 4.3 m Scot Anderson & Adam Brown
  • Pelagic White Sharks Boustany et al., 2002 Nature (n = 6)‏
  • White Shark to Hawaii 04-160 4 m Female Photo: Scot Anderson & Adam Brown Tag found by beach-comber at Sea Ranch, CA
  • White shark movement to Hawaii Weng et al. 2007 Marine Biology
  • Seasonal Distribution: White Sharks (n = 15)‏ Weng et al. 2007
  • White Shark Range Expansion Boustany et al. 2002 Weng et al. 2007 Compagno 1984 Species range (fishery data)‏ Individual movements
  • A Week in Life of a White Shark in Hawaii
    • Diel pattern of behavior
    • Onshore day, offshore night?
    • Dolphins, large pelagics, whale placentas?
    • Monk seals?
  • Why Migrate to Hawaii ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
  • Why Migrate to Hawaii ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
    No winter in California Current X
  • Why Migrate to Hawaii ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
    • Pelagic fishes
    • Sharks & rays
    • Turtles
    • Dolphins
    • Whales
    • Whale placentas
  • Reverse Diel Behavior
    • Deepest dives at night
    • Nearshore during day
    • Offshore during night
        • ?
  • Why Migrate to Hawaii ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
    ? Both males and females No records of neonates
  • Return Migration of White Shark 04-156 3.6 m Unknown sex Photo: Scot Anderson & Adam Brown
  • Radio Direction Finder
    • Recover archival tags
    • Reacquire animal at sea and sample environment or collect additional data
    Doppler antenna Controller Receiver (401.65 MHz)‏ Processor Smart friends (Hans Thomas, MBARI)‏
  • Full cycle of migration Days of the Year
  • White Shark Behavior Changes Dramatically in Different Habitats Offshore Traveling Nearshore
  • Vertical Habitat Through Migration
  • Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
  • Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
    Pelagic fishes Sharks & rays Low abundance
  • Primary Productivity
  • Potential Prey for White Sharks Offshore? Catch of Bigeye Tuna 2000-2004 IATTC, 2006
  • White Sharks Foraging Offshore? Catch of Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna 2000-2004 IATTC, 2006
  • Parturition? Juvenile white sharks: Southern California & Baja Weng et al., in press, MEPS
  • Mexico Pacific: Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ?
    • Escape winter
    • Find food
    • Mate or give birth
    Both males and females Neonates in S. CA Bight
  • Mexico Sharks (Guadalupe Isl.) Domeier and Nasby-Lucas, in press, MEPS
  • Parturition? Young born Adult Nearshore nursery Adult Nearshore nursery Young born Kevin Weng, Stanford University
  • Migration: Indian Ocean
  • Aggregation Region Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  • Neritic Migrations Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  • Africa to Australia O + 3. 8 m shark: not mating Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  • Migration: Australia/NZ
  • Hotspots + highways 3.0 – 4.0 m white sharks Bruce et al. 2006, unpublished
  • Long Distance Movements Linking Australia + New Zealand Bruce et al. unpublished
  • Summary – White Shark Feed Feed? Mate? Transit
  • Summary: White Sharks
    • Not neritic – huge pelagic habitat for ½ the year
    • Predictable seasonal migration
    • Regular use of mid-ocean and isolated islands
    • Australia? Neritic…