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Lecture 9 Animal Behavior: Phylogenies and Determining the Origins of Behaviors
Evolutionary questions <ul><li>Origin of trait </li></ul><ul><li>Why have some traits have spread and persisted while othe...
Phylogenies <ul><li>What is a phylogeny? </li></ul>
Phylogenies <ul><li>How constructed? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morpholo...
Phylogenies <ul><li>What does it mean to resolve a phylogeny? </li></ul>Example of 2 phylogenies resolved and unresolved w...
How resolved? <ul><li>Traits evolve over different time scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular clocks  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Molecular vs Morphological Phylogenies Comparison of the subgenera of Polistes phylogeny obtained by Carpenter's 1996 morp...
Fossil vs Extant  Morphological Phylogenies Two phylogenies, one using with characteristics from fossils (Dr. Michael Cald...
Is a resolved phylogeny right? <ul><li>Not necessarily! </li></ul>
Observed patterns of occurrence of traits over evolutionary time <ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multip...
How determine the origin of a trait?: Bower building style <ul><li>Bower birds </li></ul><ul><li>Males construct bowers to...
How determine the origin of a trait? Bower building style <ul><li>Several species of bower birds </li></ul><ul><li>Differe...
How determine the origin of a trait? Bower building style <ul><li>Compare occurrence among species in a phylogeny construc...
How determine the origin of a trait?: Preference for long fin <ul><li>Behavior: test response of organisms to character no...
How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin <ul><li>Ancestor (no fin) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day specie...
How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin
How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin Seemingly likely origin of fin preference
How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin <ul><li>Test whether females of extant species prefer males w...
How determine the origin of a trait? Crests on birds <ul><li>Behavior: test response of organisms to character not in the ...
Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Existing least auklet males: </li></ul><ul><li>Test males w/crests: </li></ul>
Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Results of female preference </li></ul>These don't exist!
Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Results of female preference </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: preference is ance...
Sensory exploitation <ul><li>Males exploiting non-sexual triggers of female for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Cichlid fis...
Summary <ul><li>Phylogenies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How resolve </li></ul></...
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Lec 10 Phylogenies And Origin Of Behaviors

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Transcript of "Lec 10 Phylogenies And Origin Of Behaviors"

  1. 1. Lecture 9 Animal Behavior: Phylogenies and Determining the Origins of Behaviors
  2. 2. Evolutionary questions <ul><li>Origin of trait </li></ul><ul><li>Why have some traits have spread and persisted while others have disappeared? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phylogenies <ul><li>What is a phylogeny? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Phylogenies <ul><li>How constructed? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological characters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which trait is more important? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Phylogenies <ul><li>What does it mean to resolve a phylogeny? </li></ul>Example of 2 phylogenies resolved and unresolved with mtDNA. Unresolved Resolved Mimics Original
  6. 6. How resolved? <ul><li>Traits evolve over different time scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular clocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MtDNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SNPs and “junk DNA” (within DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Traits which are selected for/against can change rapidly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: how do you know it isn't selected for? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Molecular vs Morphological Phylogenies Comparison of the subgenera of Polistes phylogeny obtained by Carpenter's 1996 morphological study (Fig. 2.8) and the phylogeny obtained in the present study, including all morphological and molecular characters. Species included from each subgenus are listed in Table 1. Arévalo et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:8 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-8 Morphological Morphological and Molecular
  8. 8. Fossil vs Extant Morphological Phylogenies Two phylogenies, one using with characteristics from fossils (Dr. Michael Caldwell)
  9. 9. Is a resolved phylogeny right? <ul><li>Not necessarily! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Observed patterns of occurrence of traits over evolutionary time <ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple occurrence of eye structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected traits change rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain traits arise by co-opting machinery for another trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(similar to exaptation) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How determine the origin of a trait?: Bower building style <ul><li>Bower birds </li></ul><ul><li>Males construct bowers to attract females </li></ul><ul><li>Several species of bower birds </li></ul><ul><li>Different construction </li></ul>
  12. 12. How determine the origin of a trait? Bower building style <ul><li>Several species of bower birds </li></ul><ul><li>Different construction of bowers </li></ul>
  13. 13. How determine the origin of a trait? Bower building style <ul><li>Compare occurrence among species in a phylogeny constructed with other characters </li></ul><ul><li>Independent test </li></ul><ul><li>Supports origin of bower on forest floor </li></ul>
  14. 14. How determine the origin of a trait?: Preference for long fin <ul><li>Behavior: test response of organisms to character not in the phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial character trigger ancestral response? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin <ul><li>Ancestor (no fin) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day species (no fin) </li></ul><ul><li>Derived species (fin) </li></ul>
  16. 16. How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin
  17. 17. How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin Seemingly likely origin of fin preference
  18. 18. How determine the origin of a trait? Preference for long fin <ul><li>Test whether females of extant species prefer males with fins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion – preference for fish fins arose before ancestral species: </li></ul>Seemingly likely origin of fin preference Origin of fin preference supported by data
  19. 19. How determine the origin of a trait? Crests on birds <ul><li>Behavior: test response of organisms to character not in the phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial character trigger ancestral response? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crests are not found in species </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Existing least auklet males: </li></ul><ul><li>Test males w/crests: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Results of female preference </li></ul>These don't exist!
  22. 22. Determining the Origins of Behaviors <ul><li>Results of female preference </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: preference is ancestral </li></ul>These don't exist!
  23. 23. Sensory exploitation <ul><li>Males exploiting non-sexual triggers of female for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Cichlid fish (guppies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of energy (which is in demand) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some orange spotted males (must eat food to acquire pigments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females with higher rate of pecking at orange disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have higher preference for orange males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggests males are exploiting female trigger </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Phylogenies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How resolve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observed patterns of trait occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of determining Origin of traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative phylogenies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Style of bowers made by Bower birds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for residual ancestral preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish Fin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bird crests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept: Sensory Exploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection (find orange fruits), males (orange spots) </li></ul></ul>
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