Edible Landscaping for Über Nutrition


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Where do you find foods with Super Powers? Do you know how to identify the most nutritious foods? For access to the most nutrient-dense foods—seasonal, local, colorful, heirloom, organic, sustainably grown—an increasing number of people are choosing to grow their own. Whether you have an acre, an urban plot, or merely a windowsill, why not plants foods in your landscape? Discover easy-to-grow rare fruits with excellent nutritional value. Includes great growing tips and resources for sourcing seeds, plants, trees.

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Edible Landscaping for Über Nutrition

  1. 1. EDIBLE LANDSCAPING FOR ÜBER NUTRITION Jeanne M. Wallace, PhD, CNC© 2012, Nutritional Solutions • (435) 563-0053 • www.nutritional-solutions.net
  2. 2. DISCLOSURE INFORMATION Jeanne M. Wallace, PhD, CNC‣Indicated no relevant affiliations or financial interests.‣Speaker has not presented any promotional talks to any pharmaceutical companies within the past 12 months.‣Speaker will not discuss off-label or investigational drug use.
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES‣ Identify 4+ reasons home-grown edibles offer superior nutritional value compared to produce available in grocery stores [Hint? SCHOLAR].‣ Name a handful of easy-to-grow-and-care-for edibles that can be grown in rural, suburban and urban settings—from potted plants on a balcony to semi-dwarf fruit trees in a small yard.‣ Implement a plan to grow a few edibles using the provided resources for (a) obtaining further knowledge about landscaping with edibles, (b) developing gardening skills, and (c) finding rare and heirloom edibles at specialty nurseries.
  5. 5. POP QUIZ 1. It’s the middle of winter, long ago,and you are in charge of ensuring your family does not succumb to scurvy. What animal food do you eat? 5
  6. 6. POP QUIZ 1. It’s the middle of winter, long ago,and you are in charge of ensuring your family does not succumb to scurvy. What animal food do you eat? 5
  7. 7. POP QUIZ2. Can you identify these? 6
  8. 8. POP QUIZ 2. Can you identify these? parsnip salsify celeraic fennel jicamadaikon kohlrabi 6
  9. 9. POP QUIZ 3. What fruit are these types of ?Hint: In 1850, there were over 2,500 varieties in the U.S.Akane Foxwhelp Spy GoldArkansas Black Hudson’s Golden Gem SpartanAshmead’s Kernel Karmijn de Sonneville Summer RamboBlue Permain Kingston Black Thompkins KingBramley Lubsk Queen Tydemans Late OrangeCalville Blanc Macoun WealthyChehalis Prairie Spy William’s PrideEsopus Spitzenburg Pound Sweet Winter BananaFameuse Red Boskoop Wolf River 7
  10. 10. POP QUIZ 4. How many miles does most of the food Americans eat travel to reach our plates? A. 500 miles B. 750 miles C. 1,500 miles D. 2,000 miles http://food-hub.org/files/resources/Food%20Miles.pdf 8
  11. 11. POP QUIZ 4. How many miles does most of the food Americans eat travel to reach our plates? Asparagus Peru A. 500 milesBell peppers NetherlandsBlackberries Chile B. 750 milesBlueberries Argentina Cherries Chile C. 1,500 miles Oranges Australia Garlic China D. 2,000 miles Tomatoes Mexico http://food-hub.org/files/resources/Food%20Miles.pdf 8
  12. 12. POP QUIZ 5. Today’s food is less nutritious than it was 50 years ago. A. True B. False 9
  13. 13. POP QUIZ 5. Today’s food is less nutritious than it was 50 years ago. A. True B. FalseUSDA Food Composition Data for 43 produce items compared1950 to 1999 (data adjusted for differences in moisture content)Significant declines in 6 nutrients: protein, Ca, P, Fe, B2, & vit C Davis DR et al., J Am Co! Nutr, 2004;23(6):669-82. 9
  14. 14. Finding the Most Nutritious Food SC H O L A R SEASONAL COLORFUL HEIRLOOM ORGANIC LOCAL AUTHENTIC RIPE Wallace, JM: SCHOLAR method to identify the most the nutritious anti-cancer foods. © 2010, Nutritional Solutions, Logan, UT. 10
  15. 15. Finding the Most Nutritious Food SE A SONAL • Fall season broccoli has 2-fold higher vitamin C • Compared to spring grown brassicas, autumn grown broccoli, cabbage & turnips had ↑ levels of glucosinolates & ↑ antioxidant capacity • Spring-harvest spinach has higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity Wunderlich SM, et al: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Feb;59(1):34-45. Aires A, et al: Molecules. 2011 Aug 10;16(8):6816-32. Howard LR, et al: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 9;50(21):5891-6. 11
  16. 16. Finding the Most Nutritious Food SE A SONAL • Milk produced during grazing seasons were more yellow (↑ β-carotene, lutein, vitamin E) than in winter • Cheese from spring pasture fed cows has ↑ CLA and omega-3 fats than in winter • Lamb nursed from pastured ewes (vs winter, no pasture access) had more favorable omega-6:3 ratio & ↑ CLA content Agabriel C, et al: J Dairy Sci. 2007 Oct;90(10):4884-96. Abilleira E, et al: J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4746-53. Mazzone G, et al: Meat Sci. 2010 Oct;86(2):474-8. 12
  17. 17. Finding the Most Nutritious Food C O LOR FUL • ↑ Levels of phytonutrients & antioxidants as produce reaches maturity • Lycopene in tomatoes is ↑ in dark red (as opposed to pink, yellow or orange) fruits • Darker orange carrots are ↑ in beta carotene • Exposure to light post-harvest can help develop ↑ nutrients in leafy greens Brandt S, et al: J Sci Food Agric. 2006 Mar;86(4):568–72. Tanumihardjo SA, et al: Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Nov;234(11):1280-6.Navarro JM, et al: Food Chem. 2006 May;96(1):66-73. • Lester GE & Makus DJ: J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2980–87 13
  18. 18. Finding the Most Nutritious Food H E I R LOOM • Industrial foods selectively bred for non-nutritive qualities: ‣ high yield ‣ uniform ripening date ‣ large, uniform size ‣ suitable for mechanical harvest ‣ pest & disease resistance ‣ can stand long-distance transport ‣ rapid growth rate ‣ storability • Heirloom, open-pollinated varieties: higher nutrient levels • Diversity of cultivars = wider spectrum of phytonutrientsHalweil B: Still no free lunch: Nutrient levels in U.S. food supply eroded by pursuit of high yields. 2007 Sept; http://www.organic-center.com/reportfiles/Yield_Nutrient_Density_Final.pdf. 14
  19. 19. Finding the Most Nutritious Food O RG ANIC • Review of 33 studies (908 comparisons)— controlled for cultivar, harvesting, soil conditions —organic foods 25-30% ↑ levels nutrients & antioxidants, 80% ↑ phytonutrients • Men fed Mediterranean organic diet x 14 days 21% ↑ plasma total antioxidant capacity • Urinary pesticide markers fell to non-detectable levels in Seattle school children eating organic diet x 5 days Hunter D: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Jul;51(6):571-82. • Worthington V: J Alt Comp Med, 2001 Apr;7(2):161-73. Crinnion WJ: Alt Med Rev, 2010;15(1):4-12. • Benbrook C et al: Am J Clin Nutr, 2009 Dec;90(6):1700-1. Mitchell AE, et al: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jul 25;55(15):6154-9. • Di Renzo L, et al: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.2007 May-Jun;11(3):185-92. • Lu C et al: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Feb;114(2):260-3 & Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr;116(4):537-42. 15
  20. 20. WHY do organic foods have higher nutrient levels?• Soil Composition Commercial Ag relies on N- P-K fertilizers only; organic Ag uses compost to build soil fertility for full spectrum of nutrients• Facilitated Root Uptake Herbicides/pesticides (& low organic matter soil) kill soil organisms essential for root uptake of nutrients• Benefits of Pests Plants make phytonutrients to protect from pest pressure (when pesticides applied, lower level of these nutrients develop) Reganold JP et al: PLoS One. 2010 Sep 1;5(9). 16
  21. 21. Finding the Most Nutritious Food LO C AL • Nutrient levels drop post-harvest, during shipping & storage: ‣ SPINACH: ↓ 30% folate in 1 wk (if kept in dark); ↓ 100% vit C in 4 days ‣ POTATOES: ↓ 50% vitamin C in 2 months, ↓ 80% in 4 months ‣ FRESH PEAS: ↓ 55% vit C in 48 hrs ‣ BROCCOLI: ↓ 60% total flavonoids in 10 days Lester GE, et al: Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2010; 58: 2980-2987. Rickman JC, et al: J Sci Food Agric, 2007;87(6):930-44. 17
  22. 22. Finding the Most Nutritious Food AU T H E NTIC As Nature Intended • Animals pasture-raised (not CAFOs) ‣ ↑ omega-3 (↓ omega-6 & total fat), ↑ CLA, carotenoids, vitamin A & E • Plants grown on soil ‣ ↓ carotenoids in hydroponic vs field grown greens • Not genetically modified (safety unknown) ‣ Harm to animals eating GMO feed: DNA damage, immune suppression, lung damage, liver failure Daley CA, et al: Nutr J, 2010;9:10-22. • Mazzone G, et al: Meat Sci. 2010 Oct;86(2):474-8. Kimura M & Rodriguez-Amaya DB: J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(9):2603–7. • Dona A & Arvanitoyannis IS: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Feb;49(2):164-75. 18
  23. 23. Finding the Most Nutritious Food R I PE • Industrial foods are picked early to withstand mechanical harvest & reduce spoilage during shipping & storage • Nutrient levels are highest at peak of ripeness • Vitamin C content of red peppers, tomatoes, apricots, peaches and papayas is highest when picked ripe from the plant Lee SK & Kader AA: Postharvest Biol Technol. 2000; 20: 207–220. Dumas Y, et al: J Sci Food Agric. 2003; 83: 369–382. Heaton S. Organic Farming, Food Quality and Human Health. A Review. Soil Association, 2001. 19
  24. 24. Where to Findthe Most Nutritious Food • Choose organic, local, seasonal, fresh, deeply colorful • Ask your store to carry, label, and feature locally-grown products • Shop at Farmer’s Markets • Join a CSA, or Farm Share • LocalHarvest (find what’s growing near you) • Support restaurants that serve local foods 20
  25. 25. www.RealTimeFarms.com 21
  26. 26. www.RealTimeFarms.com 21
  27. 27. www.RealTimeFarms.com 21
  28. 28. www.LocalHarvest.com 22
  29. 29. www.LocalHarvest.com 22
  30. 30. www.LocalHarvest.com 22
  31. 31. www.LocalHarvest.com 22
  32. 32. Where to Findthe Most Nutritious Food GROW YOUR OWN ....YES, REALLY! 23
  33. 33. EDIBLE LANDSCAPING • Coined by Rosalind Creasey, 1970’s • Use of food-producing plants in residential (and urban) landscapes • May combine fruit & nut trees, berry bushes, vegetables, edible flowers, culinary and medicinal herbs & ornamental plants into aesthetically pleasing designs • In history: ancient Persian gardens, Medieval monastic gardens, 19th c. English gardens© 2009, Rosalind Creasey’s front yard, used with permission 24
  34. 34. SOMEPLANNING 25
  35. 35. Planning for Success Will It Grow? like herbs, near kitchen door)• Climate (USDA hardiness zone & • Accessibility (e.g., raised beds & microclimate conditions) deck containers)• Location (6-8 hrs sunlight) Effort Required• Soil (drainage, pH, compost) • Time & Care (use perennials, mulch• Water (rainfall vs irrigation) for weed control) Design Tips • Pest considerations (disease-• Ornamental considerations (select resistant cultivars easier to grow plants for beauty, winter interest) organically)• Space (consider mature size of • Fruit drop (will it stain nearby deck plant, use dwarf /semi-dwarf or walkway?) varieties) • Use (plan to put up & store harvest,• Easy access (place high-use items, share, donate to food pantry) 26
  36. 36. SOW WHAT? • Grow what you like to eat (favorites) • Nutritionally superior varieties (↑ ORAC) not found in markets • Super foods (goji berries, sea buckthorn) • Family heirlooms (e.g., your grandpa’s favorite tomato) • Cultural / ethnic favorites not readily available in markets 27
  37. 37. WHAT TO GROW? Dirty Dozen Switching to organic for these can ↓ pesticide exposure by 90%1. Apples 7. Grapes (imported)2. Celery 8. Sweet bell peppers3. Strawberries 9. Potatoes4. Peaches 10. Blueberries5. Spinach 11. Lettuce6. Nectarines (imported) 12. Kale/collard greensEnvironmental Working Group, Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce. www.ewg.org/foodnews/summary/ www.ewg.org/sites/foodnews/methodology.php2 28
  38. 38. WHAT TO GROW? Endangered Species PawpawElephant Heart Plum Cherokee Purple Tomato Newtown Pippin Apple Speckled Amish Pie Moon & Stars Lettuce Squash Watermelon SLOW FOOD’s Ark of Taste is a catalog of 200+ especially delicious foods in danger of extinction, being promoted by the Ark to ensure they remain in production and on our plates. 29
  39. 39. Containers 30
  40. 40. Containers 31
  41. 41. Where?• Windowsill • Patio or deck• Bay window • Front yard• Hanging baskets • Back & side yards• Front porch • Parking strip• Balcony • Courtyards• Fire escape • School yards 32
  42. 42. Where else?• Rooftops of... ‣ Restaurants ‣ Grocery stores ‣ Schools ‣ Hospitals ‣ Prisons ‣ Senior centers ‣ Housing complexes ‣ Office buildings 33
  43. 43. Where else? • Roadway medians • Community garden plots • Public parks • Municipal land • White house lawnProduce outside the capital building in Madison, WI, is donated to the local food pantry. (Photo: Kelly Hafermann) A median in the Queen Anne neighborhood of Seattle. (Photo: Darrin Nordahl) 34
  44. 44. READY? SET...GROW! 35
  45. 45. Potted Herbs• What: parsley, sage, rosemary & thyme (cilantro, dill, basil and others too).• Growing Tips: ‣ 2-4” high quality organic soil, tamp down. Sow seeds 1/4” deep. Use a mister to water regularly. A lid retains moisture during germination. Plant at 2-3 wk intervals for continuous harvest. ‣ Harvest as needed (snip top 1-2”) 36
  46. 46. Salad Greens• What: wide variety of lettuce varieties, mesclun, salad green mixes, chard, spinach, kale, etc.• Varieties: Little Gem (small romaine suited to containers)• Growing Tips: ‣ 2-4” high quality organic soil, tamp down. Sow seeds 1/4” deep. Use a mister to water regularly. A lid retains moisture during germination. Plant at 2-3 wk intervals for continuous harvest. ‣ Harvest: cut & come again (snip retaining bottom 1” of crown, or choose outer leaves. 37
  47. 47. Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.)• Why: ↑↑ ORAC, #10 dirty dozen list• Cultivars: Rubel, Duke, Little Giant, North Sky ↑ antioxidant (low-bush varieties higher than high-bush).• Key Nutrients: anthocyanins, phenolics• Size: 3-6’ shrub, does well potted• Hardiness: zones 4-8, depend on cultivar• Growing Tips: requires acidic soil, 4.5-4.8 pH; full sun; moist soil, mulch well• Cultivation: higher yield w/ pollinizer• Landscape Use: some varieties have orange or red fall color, yellow twigs in winter• Harvest: Jul-Aug• Yield: ~ 10 lbs per mature bush Prior RL, et al: J Agri. Food Chem. 1998;46:2686−2693. 38
  48. 48. Black Currant (Ribes odoratum)• Cultivars: Crandall black currant (clove currant)• Key Nutrients: anthocyanins (10x higher than blueberries)• Size: 4-6’ h x 3-6’ w• Hardiness: zones 2-8• Growing Tips: drought tolerant, shade tolerant; alkaline soil tolerant• Landscape Use: Clove-scented yellow flowers in spring, red-purple fall foliage. Makes nice hedge.• Harvest: August• Yield: 5 lbs per mature bush 39
  49. 49. Haskap / Honeyberry (Lonicera caerulea)• Cultivars: Blue Sky, Blue Belle, Blue Moon, Blue Velvet• Key Nutrients: anthocyanins• Size: 3-5’ h x 3-5’ w shrub• Hardiness: zones 3-8• Growing Tips: neutral to mild acid pH, well drained soil. Early blossoms not damaged by frost.• Cultivation: needs pollinizer• Landscape Use: shrub• Harvest: early spring (before strawberry)• Yield: 10-15 lbs per mature bush 40
  50. 50. Strawberries (Prunus tomentosa)• Why: #3 on Dirty Dozen list• Cultivars: Earliglow, June-bearing variety (↑ phenolics, ↑ antioxidant activity, ↑ cancer cell inhibition)• Size: 12-18”• Hardiness: zones 4-11• Growing Tips: neutral to mild acid pH, well drained soil.• Cultivation: self-fertile• Harvest: June-July• Yield: ~ 1 pint per plant Meyers KJ, et al: J Agric Food Chem, 2003;51(23):6887-92. 41
  51. 51. Nanking Cherry (Prunus tomentosa)• Fruits: 1/2” spritely, semi-tart cherry• Size: 5-8’ h x 5-8’ w, large shrub• Hardiness: zones 2-6• Growing Tips: neutral to mild acid pH, well drained soil. Early blossoms not damaged by frost.• Cultivation: self-fertile (fruit yield increases with mate), well drained neutral to alkaline soil, wind tolerant• Landscape Use: great show of early spring flowers, pretty winter bark• Harvest: June-July• Yield: 15 lbs per mature bush 42
  52. 52. Mulberry (Morus nigra, Mora alba, Morus rubrus)• Cultivars: Illinois everbearing (tree), Geraldi dwarf (6’ tall)• Key Nutrients: anthocyanins (leaves), resveratrol (leaves)• Size: 8-35’ tree (dwarfs available)• Hardiness: zones 4-9, depending on type• Growing Tips: need full sun, good soil. Don’t prune ≥ 1.5” branches (bleed).• Cultivation: self-fruitful• Landscape Use: privacy screen, shade tree, background tree in shrub border• Harvest: mid-summer to autumn; spread clean sheet under & gently shake tree 43
  53. 53. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)• Cultivars: Orange Energy, Orange Delight, Sirola, Askola, Leikora, Sunny• Key Nutrients: vitamins C and E, fatty acids, protein, carotenoids, zeaxanthin, flavonoids, plant sterols• Size: 6-10’ shrub• Hardiness: zones 3-9• Growing Tips: full sun, average soil.• Cultivation: need male & female plants• Landscape Use: elongated silver-green leaves, dramatic clusters of orange fruits. Thorny branches.• Harvest: late Aug - early Oct• Yield: 10-12 lbs per mature plant 44
  54. 54. Jujube (Chinese Red Date, Ziziphus jujuba)• Cultivars: Li, Lang, GA-866, Sherwood• Key Nutrients: vitamin C, B3, cal, mg, fiber• Size: small tree, 10-20’ tall• Hardiness: zones 6-9• Growing Tips: full sun, widely tolerant of soils (clay, compacted), drought tolerant. Will thrive despite neglect.• Cultivation: self-fertile, but ↑ yield if second variety nearby• Landscape Use: lovely gnarled branches with draping branches• Harvest: late Sept - Oct 45
  55. 55. Cherry (Amelanchier sp) • Cultivars: Lapins & Stella (self-fertile), Craig’s Crimson (dwarf) • Key Nutrients: anthocyanins • Size: semi-dwarf 8-12’, dwarf 6-8’ tallLapins • Hardiness: zones 4-9 • Growing Tips: may need to net to prevent birds eating all your cherries. • Cultivation: some varieties not self- fertile • Landscape Use: fragrant blossoms in April • Harvest: June-July 46
  56. 56. Semi-Dwarf Apple (Malas sp)• Why? #1 on Dirty Dozen list!• Cultivars: ‣ Disease resistant: William’s Pride, Spartan, Enterprise, Jonafree, Libery, Pristine ‣ Self-fertile: Queen Cox, Anna, Braeburn ‣ Both DR/SF: Arkansas Black, Chehalis, Wolf River• Size: 6-15’, depends on rootstock• Hardiness: zones 4-9• Growing Tips: Most need cross-pollination (plant 2 varieties). Thin heavy fruit set; needs pruning.• Harvest: Sept-Oct• Yield: 1-2 bushel dwarf; 5+ bushel semi-dwarf 47
  57. 57. Plum (Prunus spp)• Cultivars: Hollywood (Santa Rosa type)• Key Nutrients: anthocyanins• Size: 15’ tall tree, can be pruned to 10-12’• Hardiness: zones 4-9• Growing Tips: neutral to mild acid pH, well drained soil. Early blossoms not damaged by frost.• Cultivation: self-fertile• Landscape Use: nice spring pink flowers, foliage is deep red all summer• Harvest: Aug-Sept 48
  58. 58. RESOURCES 49
  59. 59. 50
  60. 60. Harvest Festivals & Fruit Tasting FairsONE GREEN WORLD NURSERY October 6, 13, & 20 - 10AM - 4:30 PM Portland, OR area RAINTREE NURSERY October 13, 2012, 10AM - 5PM Seattle, WA area 51
  61. 61. USDA Hardiness Maphttp://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/ 52
  62. 62. RESOURCES Nurseries for Rare & Heirloom Edibles ① ② ⑨ ③ ⑧ ⑦ ⑥ ⑤ ④① Raintree www.raintreenursery.com ⑥ Edible Landscaping Online② Burnt Ridge www.burntridgenursery.com www.eat-it.com③ One Green World www.onegreenworld.com ⑦ Stark Bros www.starkbros.com④ Pine Island www.tropicalfruitnursery.com ⑧ Oikos www.oikostreecrops.com⑤ Hidden Springs www.hiddenspringsnursery.com ⑨ FedCo www.fedcoseeds.com 53
  63. 63. RESOURCES Heirloom Seeds (no GMOs)• Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds, 1,400 heirloom garden seeds, from around the world (Branson, MO) http://rareseeds.com• Seed Savers Exchange (Decorah, IA) www.seedsavers.org• Peaceful Valley Farm Supply (Grass Valley, CA) www.groworganic.com• FedCo Seeds, co-op (Waterville, ME) www.fedcoseeds.com• Johnny’s Selected Seeds (Winslow, ME) www.johnnyseeds.com/t-Heirloom_Seeds.aspx• Renee’s Garden (Felton, CA) http://reneesgarden.com• Seeds of Change (Rancho Dominguez, CA) www.seedsofchange.com 54
  64. 64. RESOURCES Build Your Gardening Skills• The Garden Primer [2nd Ed], Barbara Damrosch (2008)• Urban Homesteading: Heirloom Skills for Sustainable Living, Rachel Kaplan & K. Ruby Blume (2011) 55
  65. 65. RESOURCES FOR EDIBLE LANDSCAPING • Uncommon Fruits for Every Garden, Lee Reich (2009) • The Edible Front Yard, Ivette Solar (2011) • Edible Landscaping, Rosalind Creasey (2010) • Landscaping With Fruit, Lee Reich (2009) 56
  66. 66. RESOURCES FOR URBAN & SMALL SPACES• The Edible Balcony: Growing Fresh Produce in Small Spaces, Alex Mitchell (2012)• Any Size, Anywhere Edible Gardening: The No Yard, No Time, No Problem Way To Grow Your Own Food, William Moss (2012)• Grow Great Grub: Organic Food from Small Spaces, Gayla Trail (2010)• Microgreens: How to Grow Natures Own Superfood, Fionna Hill (2010) 57
  67. 67. RESOURCES Non-Toxic Ways to Manage Pests• Peaceful Valley Farm Supply www.groworganic.com/weed-pest-control.html• Planet Natural www.planetnatural.com• Garden’s Alive www.gardensalive.com 58
  68. 68. Healing Power of Nature • “Vitamin G” (green space) & Horticultural Therapy • Studies show our exposure to plants / green space: ‣ Improves immune response (NK function) ‣ ↓ Stress ‣ ↑ Positive emotion ‣ ↑ Recovery from illness ‣ ↑ Pain tolerance (↓ need for pain meds) ‣ ↑ Expression of anti-cancer proteins ‣ ↓ Blood sugar in diabetic patients Park BJ, et al: Environ Health Prev Med, 2010;15(1):18-26. • Lee J, et al: Scand J Forest Res 2009;24(3):227-34.Ohtsuka Y, et al: Int J Biometeorol. 1998;41(3):125-7. • Groenewegen PP, et al: BMC Public Health 2006,6:149-58. 59
  69. 69. Healing Power of Nature • Potted plant in hospital room enhanced health outcomes in patients recovering from surgery ‣ ↓ systolic blood pressure ‣ ↓ ratings of pain, anxiety, and fatigue ‣ ↑ satisfaction with hospital experience • Bone density in women who garden = those who weight train, and > than those who jog & do aerobics (Turner et al., 2002) • Activity in green areas improves mood & self-esteem within just 5 minutes (Barton and Pretty 2010) • 15 minute walk in nature = effect ↓ symptoms in childhood ADHD as Rx meds Park SH & Mattson RH: J Alt Comp Med. 2009 Sep, 15(9):975-80. • Turner LW, et al: J Women Aging. 2002;14:139–48.Barton J & Pretty J: Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:3947–55. • Faber Taylor A & Kuo FE: J Atten Disorders. 2009;12:402–9. see also Lohr VI: Acta Hort (ISHS) 2011;916:159-170. 60
  70. 70. Learn to garden. Eat real food.Involve your community.