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Writing Summaries for Effective Research
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Writing Summaries for Effective Research


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  • 1. Summary
    Chapter 1
  • 2. What is a summary?
    A brief restatement, in your own words, of the content of a passage.
    The key is to focus on the central idea.
  • 3. Write a brief summary for the following image:
  • 4. A summary requires Interpretation
    Write a summary of the following image:
  • 5. Guidelines for writing a summary for a longer passage:
    Include all of the main points.
    The main points will reflect the order and emphasis given to them by the original author.
    It may include important examples
    It will not include minor details
    It will not repeat points
    It will not contain your opinions or conclusions
  • 6. A good summary will include the following:
  • 7. What does the following image represent?
  • 8. Objectivity?
    Prior knowledge
    Frame of reference
    Make a conscious, good-faith effort to be objective.
  • 9. Where do we find summaries in academic writing and real life?
    Critique papers
    Synthesis papers
    Analysis papers
    Research papers
    Literature reviews
    Argument papers
    Essay exams
    Policy briefs
    Business plans
    Memos, letters, and reports
    Medical charts
    Legal briefs
  • 10. Purpose of a Summary
    Help you understand what you have read
    Summaries are useful to your readers
    Summaries are frequently required in college-level writing
  • 11. The Reading Process
    Summaries require you to read carefully and allow you to make accurate and coherent discussions that go beyond the summary.
  • 12. Critical Reading Notes
  • 13. Is this what Kant is really saying?
  • 14. Examine the Context
    Credentials, occupation, and publications of the author. Identify the source in which the piece originally appeared.
  • 15. Note the title and subtitle
    They reveal the author’s attitude toward the subject.
  • 16. Indentify the main point
  • 17. Identify the subordinate points
  • 18. Break the reading into sections
  • 19. Distinguish between points, examples, and counterarguments
    Note what and how authors make arguments
  • 20. Watch for transitions within and between paragraphs
    Road signs of logic
  • 21. Read actively and recursively
    Engage in a dialogue with the author
  • 22. Exercise
    Chapter 6, read Solomon A. Asch’s article “Opinions and Social Pressure” ( pages 206-211).
    Follow the steps for writing summaries—read , underline, divide into stages of thought—write 1-2 sentence summaries of each stage.
    Form groups—write a one or two sentence thesis statement summing up the entire passage and write a brief summary of Asch’s article, modeled upon the brief summary of Graham’s essay on page 18.
  • 23. Guidelines for Writing Summaries
    Freezing at St. Michaels
  • 24. Read the passage carefully
  • 25. Reread.
  • 26. Write one-sentence summaries
    ~ Drip - "?" ~
    Catching this droplet on a tiny rose leaf was so important, but only for a moment.
  • 27. Write a thesis– a one or two sentence summary
  • 28. Write the first draft of your summary
  • 29. Check your summary against the original passage
  • 30. Revise your Summary