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Revising the Whole Document for Coherence <ul><ul><li>Have you left out anything in turning your outline into a draft? </l...
Summertown Sun Publishing Sucks! Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
An Effective Title is Precise <ul><li>An effective title has both a subject and purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Offering Free C...
Evaluate the Following Titles  <ul><li>How To Beat A Murder Rap </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotism </li></ul><ul><li>A Romance De...
Draft a Title for the Following Image Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
<ul><li>A writer at ColdTec Accounting has just completed a draft of an internal report describing a recent drop in enroll...
Revising the Whole Document  <ul><ul><li>Do you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Guidelines for Revising Headings <ul><ul><li>Avoid long noun strings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be informative. </li></ul...
Avoid Long Noun Strings <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Revise: Proposed Production Enhancement Strategies Analysis Techniques ...
What’s Wrong With This Picture? <ul><li>3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Community Policing </...
Headings Create a Hierarchy of Information Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
Separate Headings from Text <ul><li>3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past decade, the sch...
Advance Organizer <ul><li>The text after the heading “3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing,” is called an  advance organ...
Write a title, advanced organizer and heading for the following image: Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by B...
Evaluate the Following Quote: <ul><li>Imagine a widely used and expensive prescription drug that claimed to make us beauti...
Advantages of Turning Paragraphs into Lists <ul><li>It forces you to:  </li></ul><ul><li>look at the big picture </li></ul...
<ul><li>The paragraph below could be improved by doing which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)  </li></ul><ul><li...
Two Kinds of Paragraphs   <ul><ul><li>A  body paragraph , the basic unit for communicating information, is a group of sent...
Two Elements of Most Paragraphs <ul><ul><li>The  topic sentence  summarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph. ...
Write a note to break up with your current mate. Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
Avoid Burying Bad News in Paragraphs <ul><li>most emphatic location = topic sentence </li></ul><ul><li>second most emphati...
Guidelines for Dividing Long    Paragraphs <ul><ul><li>Break the discussion at a logical place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>A writer is considering revising the long paragraph below.  Where is the best place to start the second paragraph?...
Emphasizing Coherence <ul><ul><li>Use transitional words and phrases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat key words. </li></...
Transitional Words Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nouns
Use Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nouns Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
Repeating Key Words Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents  © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
<ul><li>A writer wants to signal to readers that because land-use problems are causing high bacteria levels, landowners mu...
Creating a Coherent Design <ul><li>Use headers and footers to enhance coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use typefaces to enhanc...
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  1. 1. Revising the Whole Document for Coherence <ul><ul><li>Have you left out anything in turning your outline into a draft? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you included all the elements your readers expect to see? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the organization logical? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the content strong? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  2. 2. Summertown Sun Publishing Sucks! Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  3. 3. An Effective Title is Precise <ul><li>An effective title has both a subject and purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Offering Free Cholesterol Screening at Thrall Associates: A Feasibility Study </li></ul><ul><li>If your document is an internal report discussing company business, you might not need to identify the company. In that case, the following would be clear: </li></ul><ul><li>Offering Free Cholesterol Screening: A Feasibility Study </li></ul><ul><li>A Feasibility Study of Offering Free Cholesterol Screening </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  4. 4. Evaluate the Following Titles <ul><li>How To Beat A Murder Rap </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotism </li></ul><ul><li>A Romance Depicting How She Blinded Me With Science </li></ul><ul><li>Tempted into the Tycoon's Trap: A Feasibility Study </li></ul><ul><li>Car Dealers </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  5. 5. Draft a Title for the Following Image Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  6. 6. <ul><li>A writer at ColdTec Accounting has just completed a draft of an internal report describing a recent drop in enrollment in the company’s training course entitled “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003,” offered to new employees. Which of the following titles would be most appropriate for the report? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing Needs of New Employees at ColdTec </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Training Class: “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003” </li></ul><ul><li>An Analysis of Declining Enrollment in “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003” </li></ul><ul><li>Declining Enrollment in Training Classes Offered at ColdTec </li></ul>
  7. 7. Revising the Whole Document <ul><ul><li>Do you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all the elements presented consistently? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the emphasis appropriate throughout the document? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Guidelines for Revising Headings <ul><ul><li>Avoid long noun strings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be informative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid back-to-back headings. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  9. 9. Avoid Long Noun Strings <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Revise: Proposed Production Enhancement Strategies Analysis Techniques </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  10. 10. What’s Wrong With This Picture? <ul><li>3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Community Policing </li></ul><ul><li>According to the COPS Agency (a component of the U.S. Department of Justice), “Community policing focuses on crime and social disorder.”… </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  11. 11. Headings Create a Hierarchy of Information Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  12. 12. Separate Headings from Text <ul><li>3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past decade, the scholarly community has concluded that community policing offers significant advantages over the traditional approach based on patrolling in police cars. </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  13. 13. Advance Organizer <ul><li>The text after the heading “3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing,” is called an advance organizer , and indicates the background, purpose, scope, and organization of the discussion that follows. </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  14. 14. Write a title, advanced organizer and heading for the following image: Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  15. 15. Evaluate the Following Quote: <ul><li>Imagine a widely used and expensive prescription drug that claimed to make us beautiful but didn’t. Instead the drug had frequent, serious side effects: making us stupid, degrading the quality and credibility of our communication, turning us into bores, wasting our colleagues’ time. The side effects, and the resulting unsatisfactory cost/benefit ratio, would rightly lead to a worldwide product recall. </li></ul>— from Edward Tufte’s new leaflet, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint , which just came in the mail
  16. 16. Advantages of Turning Paragraphs into Lists <ul><li>It forces you to: </li></ul><ul><li>look at the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>examine the sequence </li></ul><ul><li>create a clear lead-in </li></ul><ul><li>tighten and clarify your prose </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  17. 17. <ul><li>The paragraph below could be improved by doing which of the following? (Choose all that apply.) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>As an undergraduate student, you can satisfy the University Writing Requirement and meet an important graduation requirement by scoring a 4 or 5 on either of the Advanced Placement English Exams (Language & Composition or Literature & Composition). You can also meet this requirement by receiving transfer credit for an approved college-level writing or writing-intensive course you have taken elsewhere and received a grade of &quot;B&quot; or higher. Finally, you can meet this requirement by taking and receiving a passing grade in a writing course at this university. The following two courses, for example, are dedicated primarily to the development of writing skills and can be used to meet the writing requirement: English 205 (Technical Communication) or English 200 (Rhetoric and Writing). If you have any further questions, please call Professor Lee Klein, Director of Writing Programs, in the Department of English at (518) 555-8122. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>inserting transitional words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>turning the paragraph into a list </li></ul><ul><li>beginning with a topic sentence </li></ul><ul><li>using demonstrative pronouns </li></ul>
  18. 18. Two Kinds of Paragraphs <ul><ul><li>A body paragraph , the basic unit for communicating information, is a group of sentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that is complete and self-sufficient and that contributes to a larger discussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A transitional paragraph helps readers move from one major point to another. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  19. 19. Two Elements of Most Paragraphs <ul><ul><li>The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The support makes the topic sentence clear and convincing. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  20. 20. Write a note to break up with your current mate. Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  21. 21. Avoid Burying Bad News in Paragraphs <ul><li>most emphatic location = topic sentence </li></ul><ul><li>second most emphatic = end of the paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>least emphatic location = middle of the paragraph </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  22. 22. Guidelines for Dividing Long Paragraphs <ul><ul><li>Break the discussion at a logical place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the topic sentence a separate paragraph and break up the support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a list. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  23. 23. <ul><li>A writer is considering revising the long paragraph below. Where is the best place to start the second paragraph? </li></ul><ul><li>Although graphics can enhance a Web site, they can also serve as a distraction. Having too many graphics that do not contribute to the content of the site may make your company appear unprofessional, as well as contributing to slow download times. Your site, for example, has thirty moving images. (1) Such images do not reflect the serious nature of your business. When it comes to graphics, we suggest you adopt a “less is more” approach. (2) Another troublesome feature of your site is the scrolling banner used as a navigation element. In order to reach certain pages on your site, users must quickly click the links scrolling across the banner. If they miss the link, they must wait another 20 seconds until the link scrolls by again. (3) Because this site is not designed to be a game but rather a place for customers to learn more about handling hazardous materials, you should not use a scrolling banner as a navigation element. We recommend that you use standard navigation buttons aligned along the left margin or across the top of the page. Also, you may want to include a text-only navigation element at the bottom of the page. </li></ul><ul><li>at (1) </li></ul><ul><li>at (2) </li></ul><ul><li>at (3) </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above, most effective as one paragraph </li></ul>
  24. 24. Emphasizing Coherence <ul><ul><li>Use transitional words and phrases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat key words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  25. 25. Transitional Words Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  26. 26. Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nouns
  27. 27. Use Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nouns Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  28. 28. Repeating Key Words Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  29. 29. <ul><li>A writer wants to signal to readers that because land-use problems are causing high bacteria levels, landowners must take action. Which of the following words or phrases is most appropriate in the excerpt below? </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria levels are often above state standards and are due to localized, specific land use problems. _____, efforts with landowners will be necessary to address these problems and reduce the high bacteria levels. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><li>Next </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently </li></ul>
  30. 30. Creating a Coherent Design <ul><li>Use headers and footers to enhance coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use typefaces to enhance coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the styles feature to make the design of different elements consistent. </li></ul>Chapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
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