0
SAMPLE
RESULTS
More than 500 abstracts were reviewed for this
meta-analysis, leading to the retrieval of 325 full-
text ar...
Introduction
DISCUSSION
The overall effect of digital literacy practices on learning outcomes
 
The overall results of thi...
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The Impact of Digital Literacy Practices on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis

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This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the effectiveness of online digital literacy practices performed through social media tools in higher education classrooms as measured by learning outcomes. An extensive literature search culled more than 500 potential articles and resulted in a sample of 51 representative quasi-experimental studies, consisting of 4,630 total participants. Fifty-one effect sizes were extracted and yielded a moderately positive statistically significant weighted average effect size of g+ = 0.315, k=51, p <. 01. This overall effect size suggests that integrating online digital literacy practices into the higher education classroom benefits students on measures of academic achievement and offers significant learning support.

In addition, several moderator variables were tested to determine what factors and literacy practices impact learning outcomes; namely, field of study (STEM, ARTS), conceptualization of tool (social learning theory, delivery tool), peer interaction (yes, no), modality (blogs, collaborative communication text-based technologies, i.e. forums and wikis; podcasts, and virtual worlds), practice (consuming, prosuming behaviors), and the learning outcome measured (course project, knowledge-based exam); moderator effect sizes were statistically significant for the following variables: conceptualization of the tool, practice, and learning outcomes.

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Transcript of "The Impact of Digital Literacy Practices on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis"

  1. 1. SAMPLE RESULTS More than 500 abstracts were reviewed for this meta-analysis, leading to the retrieval of 325 full- text articles and ultimately 90 primary research articles for consideration, which were further refined to the inclusion of 51 studies that yielded 51 effect sizes, consisting of 4,630 participants. •Reported research methods, including participants, instructional interventions, instruments, research design and results. •Employed a quasi-experimental or experimental research method. •Study established pretest equivalence and employed a statistical control for pretest differences. •The experimental group utilized some form of online digital literacy practice involving a social media platform or Web 2.0 tool. •Control groups received traditional instructional delivery methods and practices. •Examined the impact of online digital literacy practices on learning outcomes. •Included higher education participants. •The research presented in one study did not overlap research from another study. •The article was written in English. Introduction ABSTRACT This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the effectiveness of online digital literacy practices performed through social media tools in higher education classrooms as measured by learning outcomes. An extensive literature search culled more than 500 potential articles and resulted in a sample of 51 representative quasi-experimental studies, consisting of 4,630 total participants. Fifty-one effect sizes were extracted and yielded a moderately positive statistically significant weighted average effect size of g+ = 0.315, k=51, p <. 01. This overall effect size suggests that integrating online digital literacy practices into the higher education classroom benefits students on measures of academic achievement and offers significant learning support. In addition, several moderator variables were tested to determine what factors and literacy practices impact learning outcomes; namely, field of study (STEM, ARTS), conceptualization of tool (social learning theory, delivery tool), peer interaction (yes, no), modality (blogs, collaborative communication text-based technologies, i.e. forums and wikis; podcasts, and virtual worlds), practice (consuming, prosuming behaviors), and the learning outcome measured (course project, knowledge-based exam); moderator effect sizes were statistically significant for the following variables: conceptualization of the tool, practice, and learning outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • What is the effect of digital literacy practices on learning outcomes in formal educational settings? • How do pedagogical variables; such as field of study, peer interaction, form of online modality, practice, and learning outcome moderate this effect? The Impact of Digital Literacy Practices on Learning Outcomes inThe Impact of Digital Literacy Practices on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: A Meta-AnalysisHigher Education: A Meta-Analysis Jeannette Novakovich, Graduate Student in PhD Program, Educational Technology, Concordia University, Montreal, QuebecJeannette Novakovich, Graduate Student in PhD Program, Educational Technology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec Nicole Fournier-Sylvester, Graduate Student in PhD Program, Educational Studies, Concorida University, Montreal, QuebecNicole Fournier-Sylvester, Graduate Student in PhD Program, Educational Studies, Concorida University, Montreal, Quebec Jeannettenovakovich@gmail.com, 514-755-3987Jeannettenovakovich@gmail.com, 514-755-3987
  2. 2. Introduction DISCUSSION The overall effect of digital literacy practices on learning outcomes   The overall results of this Stage 1 meta-analysis (g+ = 0.315, k=51, p < .01) indicate that on average, learners who  engage in digital literacy practices in the form of a social media technology in higher education achieve higher positive  learning outcomes than students who engage in traditional literacy practices. Our results are fairly close to those  reported by Richard Schmid et al (2014) in a meta-analysis on the overall effect of the impact of technology on learning  outcomes in higher education (g+ 0.27, k=879, p < .05) and a meta-analysis conducted by Robert Bernard et al (2014)  on the impact of blended learning or computer-supported online learning combined with classical instruction, (g+ =  0.334, k = 117, p< .001). Although these results cannot answer Tess’ (2013) question about whether or not digital  technologies represent a “fundamental shift in the way students learn,” (p. A65), they do support Bennett’s  (2012)  contention that the content creation, collaboration and sharing that is facilitated by digital literacy practices through  online social media in higher education can have important learning benefits.    The impact of conceptualization, practice and measured learning outcome   First, the significance of the moderator variable Conceptualization suggests that the approach taken to the integration  of the practice will impact to some extent learning outcomes (g+ = 0.325, k=51, p < .002; Social learning theory  g+= .390, and Delivery tool, g+= -.013). For example, using social media as a delivery tool (ie. posting a podcast of a  lecture) had no impact on learning outcomes. Effective uses of social media in the classroom are thus grounded in a  socially situated and constructivist approach to teaching and learning.     To further support the finding of the variable conceptualization, the significance of the moderator variable Practice,  suggests that learning outcomes appear to be considerably higher when students are called upon to produce knowledge  rather than consume it: g+ = 0.326, k=51, p < .022, Prosuming g+= .504, and Consuming g+=.042. Consuming  practices have basically no impact on learning outcomes and register with an effect size close to zero or nil. This  moderator variable was chosen based on Lin et al (2010) theoretical framework for developing digital literacy practices  by distinguishing between function and critical “consuming” (reading/viewing) and “prosuming” (producing/creating) of  the works of others.    And lastly, the significance of the moderator variable Learning Outcome suggests that the content produced through  digital literacy practices exceeds content produced through traditional practice: g+ = 0.235, k=51, p < .02, Exam  g+= .168, and Project g+= .719. Our findings support Bennett’s (2012) findings that the main benefits that come from  the “effective use of Web 2.0” is “particularly through student content creation and sharing” (p. 533).   The effectiveness of the integration of social media in the classroom is dependent on how a teacher utilizes its capacity  for interaction and the development and sharing of projects. Effective uses of social media in the classroom are thus  grounded in a student-centered and constructivist approach to teaching and learning. Greenhow (2011) summarizes  that integrating social media tools in learning promotes a more student-centered course. Students are better able to  create their own understanding of content when creating with these tools.     Thus, the integration of social media also facilitates active engagement with the world. Learners create meaning, by  experiencing the world and engaging in meaningful ways.     References   Bennett, S., Bishop, A, Dalgarno, B., Waycott, J., & Kennedy, G. (2012). Implementing Web 2.0 technologies in higher  education: A collective case study. Computers & Education. 59: 524-534. Bernard, R., Borokhovski, E, Schmid, R., Tamim, R. & Abrami, P. (2014) A meta-analysis of blended learning and  tcchnology use in higher education: from the general to the applied. Journal Computers in Higher Education. 26: 87- 122. Greenhow, C., Robelia, B., & Hughes, J. E. (2009). Learning, teaching, and scholarship in a digital age. Educational  Researcher, 38(4), 246–259. doi:10.3102/0013189X09336671. Lin, T., Li, J., Deng, F. & Lee, L. (2010). Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework.  Educational Technology & Society, 16(4), 160-170.   Schmid, R, Bernard, R, Borokhovski, E. Tamim, R., Abrami, P., Surkes, M, Wade, C., & Woods, J. (2014) The effects of  technology use in postsecondary education: A meta-analysis of classroom applications. Computers & Education. 72:  271-291 RESEARCH QUESTIONS • What is the effect of digital literacy practices  on learning outcomes in formal educational  settings? • How do pedagogical variables; such as field of  study, peer interaction, form of online  modality, practice, and learning outcome   moderate this effect?  DEFINITION OF TERMS Jeannettenovakovich@gmail.com, 514-755-3987Jeannettenovakovich@gmail.com, 514-755-3987 The following terms are essential for understanding the underpinnings of  the research questions: Literacy event. Defined by Bhatt, (2012) “In analysis, researchers begin  with a literacy event as an empirical occasion involving interaction around a  written text, from which they then infer the literacy practices” (p. 291). Literacy practices. This type of activity involves the creation of  knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs and feelings correlated with the  reading and writing of texts within a social context (Street 1984, Baynham  1995, Barton & Hamilton 1998, Barton et al. 2000). Digital literacy practices. As established for the purposes of this meta- analysis, digital literacy practices are comprised of literacy activities that  involve interaction around digital content, including, texts, images, sound,  and video. Prosuming. Digital literacy practices where knowledge is created or  generated (Lin et al, 2010). Consuming. Digital literacy practices where knowledge is consumed. Social media. “ Internet based applications that build on the ideological  and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and  exchange of user generated content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p. 61), and  encompass “(a) social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, and  LinkedIn, (b) media sharing sites, such as YouTube and Flickr, (c) creation  and publishing tools, such as wikis and blogs, (d) aggregation and  republishing through RSS feeds, and (e) remixing of content and  republishing tools,” (Greenhow, 2011, p. 140).  Blogs. Individual digital spaces where individual learners can consume  and /or prosume knowledge and other learners can interact through a  commenting function. Podcasts. Video and audio online digital content that learners can consume  and/or prosume. Collaborative communication technology. Early and current online text- based technologies that allow learners to communicate collaboratively,  including wikis, forums, and other online communication tools. Virtual worlds. A digital literacy practice where learning takes place  through online simulated worlds designed for formal learning activities, such  as Second life. Learning outcome. A measured gain of knowledge or skills by the  learner as measured by a valid instrument. Project. Learning outcomes measured through the creation of course  content by a literacy event. Exam. Learning outcomes measured through an examination of course  material.
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