Writing Sentences

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Writing Sentences

  1. 1. The Comma<br />The New Well-Tempered <br />Sentence<br />by Karen Elizabeth Gordon <br />
  2. 2. "The war in Iraq will be recorded as nothing more than a ‘comma’ in the history books.”<br /> George Bush II<br />
  3. 3. Clause: Contains a subject and verb <br /> I fondled his lapel.<br /> I fondled his lapel, and I caressed his socks.<br /> When I fondled his lapel and caressed his socks, I couldn’t breathe. <br />
  4. 4. The Complete Subject<br />My name is Jean-Pierre.<br />The girl is squatting under the bridge.<br />The werewolf had a toothache.<br />He was caught.<br />The contraption shut.<br />
  5. 5. The Simple Subject<br />My name is Jean-Pierre.<br />The girl is squatting under the bridge.<br />The werewolf had a toothache.<br />He was caught.<br />The contraption shut.<br />
  6. 6. The Complete Predicate<br />The part of the sentence that has something to say about the subject, that states its predicament.<br />A debutante and a troll are squatting under the bridge.<br />
  7. 7. The Complete Predicate<br />My name is Jean-Pierre.<br />The girl is squatting under the bridge.<br />The werewolf had a toothache.<br />He was caught.<br />The contraption shut.<br />
  8. 8. The Simple Predicate<br />My name isJean-Pierre.<br />The girl is squatting under the bridge.<br />The werewolf had a toothache.<br />He was caught.<br />The contraption shut.<br />
  9. 9. Independent Clause:Contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as a sentence.<br />I ruffled his hair, and I beseeched him to relent.<br />She was kicked by the soft shoe of destiny.<br />Her irony is getting rusty.<br />He lifted her comatose toe in his palm, and he pronounced her over the scourge.<br />
  10. 10. Dependent Clause:Has subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and can function as an adjective or adverb.<br />Before I caressed his socks….<br />If she capitulates….<br />As if she’d been raised by wolves…<br />After the podiatrist pounced on her…<br />If this is love….<br />If you’ll let out the cat….<br />It has a subject and verb but it cannot stand alone---it has a linking word that makes an independent clause necessary to complete the sentence.<br />
  11. 11. Adjective Clauses<br />…are introduced by a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, that, which and sometimes are introduced by where, when or why.<br />The dowager who struck the match was a pyromaniac.<br />(restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses) <br />
  12. 12. Adverb Clauses<br />Cause: As, because, inasmuch as, now that, since<br />Comparison: As, as if, more than, rather than<br />Concession: Although, even if , even though, though<br />Condition: But that, except that, if, if only, in case, provided that, unless, whether<br />Manner: As, as if, as though<br />Place: where, wherever<br />Purpose: In order that, so, so that, that<br />Result: So that<br />Time: after, as, as soon as, before, since, till, until, when, whenever, while<br />
  13. 13. Phrases: Do not have a subject and verb<br />The rats in drag, on the lam, struggled with their luggage into the coach.<br />The simple subject-verb:<br />The rats struggled.<br />The drama takes place in the prepositional phrases.<br />
  14. 14. Simple sentence: One independent clause<br />The lithium worked.<br />
  15. 15. Complex Sentence: One independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.<br />As the lithium took effect, the mania subsided.<br />
  16. 16. Compound Sentence: Two or more independent clauses<br />The lithium worked, and the mania subsided.<br />
  17. 17. Compound-Complex Sentence: Two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses<br />As the lithium took effect, the mania subsided and the depression lifted.<br />
  18. 18. Punctuating Sentences<br />Dependent clause, independent clause [comma and conjunction] or [semicolon] independent clause dependent clause.<br />The above model is a common pattern for punctuating sentence; however, there are many exceptions and variations, depending on the number and style of phrases used in conjunction with the clauses. <br />
  19. 19. The comma is used to link and at the same time separate independent clauses of equal value that are short and have no commas within them.<br />He howled, he flailed, he groaned.<br />
  20. 20. A comma comes between two independent clauses joined by coordinating or correlative conjunctions, such as and, but, or, nor, neither, yet, for or .<br />This creates what is called a compound sentence.<br />You crossed my mind, but you didn’t stay there.<br />He told her that he belonged to another, yet his pajamas clung to her tights.<br />
  21. 21. Two short independent clauses joined by and can get along without a comma.<br />You tell me and we’ll both know.<br />He wanted cash and she wanted thrills.<br />
  22. 22. When the subject is stated only once, but has two actions, or verbs, a comma may help bridge them if the conjunction between them is but.<br />She always carries bandages with her, but will give them only to bleeding people to whom she has been formally introduced.<br />In similar situations, where two or more verbs have the same subject and are joined by and, no comma is necessary.<br />She woke up and gave the world a hurt look.<br />
  23. 23. A comma is needed after a dependent clause, usually a fairly long one, that precedes an independent clause. <br />If you let out the cat, I’ll let out the last word.<br />
  24. 24. A restrictive dependent clause (a clause that would alter the meaning of the main clause if omitted) that follow a main clause should not be set off by a comma.<br />We’ll bring on the incense and priests once we have these mastodons under control.<br />
  25. 25. Adverbial Phrases<br />An adverbial phrase is a group of related words which play the role of an adverb.  Like all phrases, an adverbial phrase does not include a subject and a verb.<br />Adverbial phrases and clauses are usually accompanied by a comma or two, depending upon their placement in a sentence. An adverbial phrase at the beginning of the sentence is followed by a comma.<br />From the right, the moon rises like a proud tangerine.<br />
  26. 26. But the comma is often omitted after short introductory adverbial phrases.<br />At dawn the sun began to rise.<br />
  27. 27. When an introductory adverbial phrase appears immediately before the verb it modifies, no comma is required because the relationship is clear.<br />Out of the bushes appeared a well-dressed man with his head underneath his arm.<br />
  28. 28. A comma comes before and after an adverbial phrase or clause occurring in the middle of a sentence between the subject and verb.<br />The goat, after eating her lederhosen, started in on her Durrenmatt.<br />
  29. 29. Adjective clauses<br />Two purposes: restrictive and on-restrictive.<br />A restrictive clause, as its name announces, actually changes or specifically modifies the subject or object it identifies. No commas cut it off from the noun or pronoun it belongs with.<br />The guys who are bald are made to sit on the south side of the room.<br />
  30. 30. Nonrestrictive phrases and clauses giving descriptive information not essential to the meaning of the sentence are set off by commas.<br />Raymond, who usually wears overalls, showed up in a green kimono.<br />
  31. 31. Phrases of all varieties generally go about with commas as sidekicks or confidants.<br />To get the rest of it off your chest, you would have to remove your shirt.<br />
  32. 32. Absolute phrases—phrases composed of a noun or pronoun plus a participle—that are not joined to the rest of the sentence are set off by commas.<br />Her hands being cold, she plunged them into her inadequate pockets.<br />
  33. 33. No comma separates the subject and predicate when their usual order is switched. Comma<br />NOT: Of the utmost urgency on our agenda were, an interview with a raven, a rack of new nightgowns, a visit with our podiatrist, and a trip.<br />BUT: of the utmost urgency on our agenda were and interview with a raven, a rack of new nightgowns, a visit….<br />
  34. 34. Use commas to set off the person or persons spoken to in direct address.<br />Come here, Nicolas, and hold my mouth shut with your big, spring-loaded hands.<br />
  35. 35. Appositives—words that follow a noun or pronoun and identify it—are usually set off by commas if they are nonrestrictive (add parenthetical information).<br />Yolanta, the friend of detractors and sycophants alike, was waylaid by three brigands with fans.<br />
  36. 36. A comma is used between two adjectives when they modify the same noun and the word and can be inserted between them without altering the meaning.<br />He wanted to eat her peachy, creamy complexion with his souvenir spoon from Yellowstone Park.<br />
  37. 37. If the first adjective modifies the idea set forth by the second adjective and the noun combined, no comma is used between the adjectives.<br />Her dull gold eyelids lifted heavily and fluttered one final coquettish farewell.<br />
  38. 38. A comma follows the exclamatory oh but not the vocative O.<br />Oh, how ridiculous!<br />O Angel of Death…<br />
  39. 39. A comma is used to set off conjunctive adverbs, such as however, moreover, etc., and transitional adverbs.<br />We hate your ideas; however, we will give them proper consideration.<br />What is love, after all, but a cross between two wishes?<br />
  40. 40. Use commas to set off interjections, however mild, transitional adverbs, and other expressions that cause a break in the flow of thought.<br />Yes, we do toenails and teeth.<br />Are you, perhaps, something less than sated?<br />
  41. 41. Two or more complementary or antithetical phrases referring to a single word that follows them should be set off from one another and from the following words by commas.<br />His delicate, though at the same time rough, cheek brushed against her sleeve and ripped it to silken shreds.<br />
  42. 42. An antithetical phrase or clause starting with not should be set off by commas if it is unessential to the meaning of the modified element.<br />I came to you, not to hear your stories, but to bounce upon your knee.<br />
  43. 43. Interdependent antithetical clauses should be set off by a comma.<br />The lower she sank, the better she felt.<br />
  44. 44. Short antithetical phrases, though, do not require commas.<br />The sooner the better.<br />The more the merrier.<br />
  45. 45. Three or more elements in a series are separated by commas. When the last two elements in a series are joined by a conjunction, a comma comes before the conjunction—unless you’re a journalist.<br />The rest of the story can be figured out by gossip, slander, and false report.<br />
  46. 46. When elements in a series are very simple and are all joined by conjunctions no commas are used.<br />Blood and sweat and tears are all equally delectable to that renegade vampire. <br />
  47. 47. A comma is used after terms such as that is, i.e., e.g., and namely when they are used to introduce a series or an example.<br /> I advise you to split, i.e., beat it, get out, if out know what’s good for you and your howling family.<br />

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