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Chapter 2 production


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  • 1. Media Production for Writers
    Writing for Electronic Media: notes from Chapter 2
  • 2. Script Conversion
    As a media writer you must convert your writing to the form of media or delivery system that you are using to reach your audience.
  • 3.
  • 4. Media is the manipulation of audio, video and digital signals in order to create images and sound that develop the representation of events in the telling of a story or the clarification of information.
  • 5.
  • 6. Relationships and Attitude
  • 7. The Misunderstood Writer
  • 8. The professional operation and eventual quality of a project may rely on the relationship that develops between you and the staff and crew of the production team.
  • 9. Disinterested
  • 10. Curious
  • 11. Involved
  • 12. Production
    Production consists of the operation of the physical and digital equipment combined to convert your written script to a completed program available to be distributed.
  • 13. Preproduction
    As a writer, you prepare most of the preproduction work: the concept, proposal, the treatment, preliminary budget and various stages of drafting.
  • 14. Production
    The production team takes the written script and organizes the equipment and personnel:
    Plan, carryout the design, setup, rehearse and record.
  • 15. Postproduction
    An editing staff in conjunction with the director and perhaps the produce work on finalizing the product. The writer might be asked to share an opinion.
  • 16. The Language of Production
    Descriptions of action (equipment and personnel)
    Abbreviations and descriptions of transitions
    Abbreviations of object framing
    Abbreviations specific to audio
  • 17. Action Descriptions
  • 18. Tilt
    a camera movement that gives the viewer the feeling that the scene is moving past in a vertical motion, either up or down, top to bottom, or bottom to top
  • 19. Dolly
    a camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling that they are moving closer or farther away from the subject
  • 20. Truck
    a camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling they are moving past the subject on a path parallel to the subject, either from right to left or from left to right
  • 21. Crab or arc
    a camera movement that combines the view of a dolly and a truck. The viewer appears to move in an circle around the subject or else moves closer or away at an angle
  • 22. Pedestal
    A camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling they are being raised or lowered in relationship to the subject. This movement usually is combined with a tilt to keep the subject properly framed.
  • 23. Crane or boom-
    a camera movement that combines one or more of a pedestal, crab, dolly, and truck. It provides the viewer with an infinite number of continuous angles. Used most often for either extreme high- or low-angle shots.
  • 24. Zoom
    an optical movement created within the lens that duplicates a dolly, giving the viewer the feeling that the subject is moving closer or farther away without changing perspective.
  • 25. Pan
    a camera movement that gives the viewer the impression that the scene is moving past in a horizontal movement, back and forth, left to right or right to left.
  • 26. Abbreviations of Transitions
    Fade-in the shot starts in black and image grad. appears
    Fade-out shot starts with visible object that fades into black
    Take (Cut) Instantaneous change of picture or sound
    Dissolve (DISS) A slow change of picture, one dissapearing as another appears
    Wipe change of picture with either a solid or soft edge between pictures
    Special effects
    Superone picture bleeds through the other giving a ghost effect
    Key – one shot bleeding thorught the other, the foreground is electronically inserted into the background shot.
    Split screen a wipe that remains in a fixed position
    Matte key a shot requiring three sources, foreground, background and a thrid to determine the shape of the separation between the 2 frames
    Chroma key- a specialized key, so that the foreground camera does not see a specific color (green or blue)
    Digital effects – an infinite number of transitions designed to replace dissolves, wipes and keys only limited by the equipment
  • 27. Abbreviations of object framing
    XCU or ECU – extreme close-up
    CU – close-up to show detail missed in a wide shot
    MCU – medium close-up
    MS – medium shot
    L/WS – long shot/wide shot:
    XLS/XWS – extreme long shot
    POV – point of view of the actor
    OS- over the shoulder of the interviewer and facing interviewee
    Two-shot - two people
    Three-shot – three people
    Head - shot faming top of the head to neck area
    Bust - shot framing from top of head to waist and chest area
  • 28. Video production: The Bible
    The bible contains a list of characters, character relationships, scenes, locations, and treatments of the production, which gives the producer and director the means to reach an understanding of your concept. It is a method used to match your concept of the script to the work they must accomplish.
  • 29. Audio Abbreviations
    SFX/EFX – sound effects
    ANNCR – announcer
    VO – voice over narrations
    MUSIC – music integrated from the same sources as sound effects
  • 30. Audio Transitions
    Cut- instantaneous change fromone audio to another
    Fade-in- audio changes from no sound to sound
    Fade-out – audio changes from sound to no sound
    Segue- - one audio fades out to silence while a second fades out to silence while a second fades in
    Cross fade – as one audio source begins to fade out, a second source begins to fade in
    Bridge – an audio link between two segments, either as a segue or a cross-fade
  • 31.
  • 32. General Descriptive Terms
    Audio: the sound source of a production, either sound or visual.
    Video: the visual source of a production
    Dialogue: speech delivered by a performer who is usually visible on camera.
    Narration: speech delivered by a performer who is usually not visible on camera.
  • 33. Audio Production Techniques
    Audio carries a significant amount of information.
    Indicates the level of gaiety or darkness in the mode, the historical time, and the location.
    Introductory music: mode, time and location
  • 34.