Maximize Learning OpportunitiesTeaching is a process of creating and utilizing learningopportunities. “Teachers need to constantly monitor howthe lesson is unfolding and make suitable changes asnecessary”. (p. 45).
Minimize Perceptual MismatchesThere are potential perceptual mismatches betweenintentions and interpretations of the learner and theteacher. Teaching should aim to minimize the mismatchesthat exist between learner and teacher perceptions of whatis available to learn.
Facilitating Negotiated InteractionRefers to meaningful learner-learner, learner-teacherclassroom interaction in which learners are entitled andencouraged to participate in conversations. By employingthis macrostrategy, teachers take students beyond thelimited action of “react and respond” (p. 39).
Promoting Learner AutonomyHelp learners learn how to learn, equipping them withstrategies necessary to self-direct and self-monitor theirown learning. “A crucial task of the teacher wishing topromote learner autonomy is to help learners takeresponsibility for their learning, and to bring aboutnecessary attitudinal changes in them” (p. 137).
Foster Language AwarenessDraw learners’ attention to the formal and functionalproperties of their second language (L2) in order to increasethe degree of explicitness required to promote L2 learning.It is important for language teachers to “design activitiesthat foster both general and critical language awareness inthe classroom” (p. 168).
Activate Intuitive HeuristicsProvide rich textual data so that learners can inferunderlying rules governing grammatical usage andcommunicative use. “Heuristics refers to the process ofself-discovery part of the learner”. (p. 176).
Contextualize Linguistic InputHighlights how language usage and use are shaped by“linguistic, extra-linguistic, situational, and Extra-situationalcontexts”. (p. 39). For example, presenting linguistic inputwithin thematic contexts reflects the natural use oflanguage.
Integrate Language SkillsStresses the need to holistically integrate language skillstraditionally separated and sequenced as listening,speaking, reading and writing. The separation of skills isinadequate for developing integrated functional skillsbecause “language skills are essentially interrelated andmutually reinforcing” (p. 228).
Ensure Social RelevanceTeachers need to be sensitive to the societal, political,economic, and educational environment in which L2learning and teaching take place.
Raising Cultural ConsciousnessTeachers need to treat learners as “cultural informants”(p. 39) so that they are encouraged to engage in a processof classroom participation that acknowledges their powerand knowledge.