Unit 1


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Unit 1

  1. 1. UNIT 1
  2. 2. Lesson 1
  3. 3. Definition of Emergent Literacy • Emergent literacy refers to competencies and literacy skills in early childhood. • Marie Clay (1966) was the first one who used the term emergent literacy. Emergent literacy based on an assumption
  4. 4. That a child acquires some knowledge about language, reading and writing even before attending any formal education. 1.
  5. 5. 2. socio-cultural literacy which emphasizes the importance of social interaction of children to construct cultural-specific meanings and to demonstrate literacy practices as social events and cultural phenomena; and
  6. 6. 3 .
  7. 7. Learners Theories Supporting Early Literacy Development A number of learning and child development theories support emergent literacy and likewise, early literacy instruction. These theories have assumed a central place in early literacy research and have reflected the variety of perspective evident.
  8. 8. Concepts on Emergent Literacy BEFORE NOW Early literacy was somewhat neglected A great deal of attention literacy development in early childhood. Little attention given to a child’s literacy development before formal schooling  Acquisition of information about literacy begins at birth and continues at the course of early childhood
  9. 9. Assumed that the beginning of literacy was in grade 1  Development of literacy in child’s earliest years  Speaking and listening were learned in early childhood while learned in school age  Simultaneous development of language related abilities
  10. 10.  Reading instruction was ignored in pre- school education Emphasis on oral language development and preparation for reading No advocacy fro formal reading instruction in early childhood Capitalize on child’s existing knowledge, information about literacy and reading and writing experiences.
  11. 11. Preschoolers were not perceived as readers and writers Children are active constructors of their own learning Waiting for a child’s natural maturation to unfold Nurture emergent literacy from birth through kindergarten to grade I
  12. 12. Preparation for literacy was through the acquisition of a set of prescribed hierarchy of skills Continuous building of knowledge on oral language, reading and writing Progression from part to whole, a set of skills as prerequisites to reading Children learn from meaningful and functional situations. Drills for contrived skills Children are interested and attempt early to communicate in writing reading and writing are cultivated concurrently. Writing had been certainly missing writing develops after reading
  13. 13. Child Development Theories that support Early Literacy THEORI ST EMPHA SIS STRATE GIES ACTIVIT IES SKILLS ROUSSEAU (1962) Child’s learning unfolds naturally; learning through curiosity Strategies meshed the child’s readiness to learn; little adult interventio n Allowing children to grow and learn with the freedom to be themselves Natural developme nt of skills, individual ways of learning, curiosity
  14. 14. Montessori (1965) Children need early, orderly, systematic training in mastering one skill after another; auto- education Specific concepts meeting specific objectives; learning materials are self- correcting; learning during “sensitive period”, designing activities and experiences for learning Allowing children to use manipulativ e toys; working with carefully designed and specific materials for specific skills; work instead of play; activities for skill mastery Specific concepts, self- correction, independent learning and mastery of one skill after another
  15. 15. Dewey (1966) Early childhood learning is child- centered; is built around the interest of the child; child learns best through play because of social interaction Allowing time for play and learning; providing a relaxed atmospher e; informal activities for learning Manipulati ve toys, arts, music, story reading, free and outdoor play, snack, rest, circle time, informal reading and writing Social skills, emotional and physical developm ent, informal reading and writing.
  16. 16. Piaget (1969) Children at certain stages are capable of only certain types of intellectual endeavors ; acquire knowledge by interacting with the world; active participants in their own learning Providing real life setting and materials, opportunity to play explore and experiment and allowing kids to use their curiosity, inquisitivene ss and spontaneity to help themselves to learn Natural problem solving situation, playing, exploring and experimentin g, planning one’s own activities and cooperating with teachers and peer in planning evaluating learning. Active construction of his learning, problem solving, playing, exploration experimentat ion and curiosity inquisitivene ss, and spontaneity decision- making, social interaction.
  17. 17. Froebel (1974) The adult responsible for the education of the child needs to be concerned with the child’s natural unfolding ; emphasis on the fullest benefits of playing to learn; requires adult guidance and direction and a planned environment. Providing adult guidance and a planned environment, guided play, providing manipulative materials to learn concepts, allowing “circle-time” which is an opportunity to sing and to learn new ideas thru discussion Teacher- facilitated activities, guided-play, manipulative for learning certain, concepts and providing opportunity for circle- time for singing Psychomotor skills, shapes, colors and size recognition, guided-play, singing obedience and discipline.
  18. 18. Pestalozzi( 1979) Natural learning with informal instruction , natural potential of a child develops through senses Providing informal instruction , providing manipulati ve experienc es and learning about them through the use of Informal activities that eventually lead to learning, manipulati ng objects and learning about them through Shapes, colors and size recognitio n, language skills
  19. 19. Vygotsky (1981) Mental functions are acquired through social relationship; learning takes place when the child interacts with peers and adults in social setting as they act upon the environment Providing meaningful and interactive activities, providing activities that allow a child to internalize, exposing a child to new situations to actively interact with others, engaging in functional and interesting learning experiences Story reading story retelling, directed listening- thinking activities, shared book experiences, dialogues, conversations, social function of reading and writing activities, communicative functions of language Communic ation skills, reading and writing skills oral language skills, social skills, internaliza tion of skills.
  20. 20. The Constructivist Model • In constructivist model, skills are taught at the point when they are likely to be useful to kids as part of an authentic literacy task. • From the historical perspective, literacy is viewed to be changing over time. Christie (1990) determined the rising literacy demands of the 20th century and described a more complex phenomenon contrasted to the literacy of the earlier periods.
  21. 21. • Vygotsky (1978), stressed that knowledge is socially constructed by interacting with others in a variety of experiences. • The philosophy of Dewey undergirds constructivist education, a view on teaching and learning as a conscious process of reconstruction of experience.
  22. 22. Further , Au (1993) thoroughly discussed the four distinct advantages of the constructivist model:
  23. 23. • The constructivist model recognizes the collaboration of parents and teachers, as well as other literate members of the community, and the active involvement of the young learners in the literacy. • As Bruner (1986) stressed those students learn most effectively when they are actively involved in their learning
  24. 24. Silberstein (1987) accounted for the developments in reading instruction. Her paper traced the significant changes in reading instruction as greatly influenced by the trends in language teaching and learning.
  25. 25. Goodman (1967, 198 0) Chomsky (1972) Holdaway (1979) Vygotsky (1981) Teale (1982) • Reading as a psycholi nguistic guessing game • Reading to child aids literacy skills • Children learn to read naturally in the home environ ment and interacti on with parents • Children’ s all higher mental function are internali zed social relations hip • Reading is acquired through socially interacti ve and emulativ e behavior
  26. 26. • Reading as an active process • Capitalize on children’s prior strengths, past experiences and knowledge • Child attempts to reconstruct his own knowledge • Increa sing intere st in books and in learni ng to read • Childre n emulat e the reading model setup by the parents • Children increase their indepen dent in reading activitie s through interacti on with literate adults • Social functio ns and conven tions of reading are acquire d throug h interac tive literacy events.
  27. 27. • Durkin (1995) addressed this issue when she discussed the various theories of language acquisition in her book, Language Issues: Reading for Teacher. Durkin stated that the model applied to each child to speak a primary or secondary language has an impact on the type of reading and writing instruction provided in schools.
  28. 28. • From a behaviorist perspective, reading is viewed as speech. Thus, a child must possess both the aural skills and oral vocabulary to read successfully. • Reading theorist agree that extensive reading is essential for the development of reading comprehension. • In implementing an integrated approach to the teaching of reading, teacher is more likely to find the most appropriate method for teaching base on individual needs.
  29. 29. • The movement from playing with drawing and writing to communicating through written message is a continuum that reflects the basic theories of emergent literacy. • (Dyson, 1985; Halliday, 1975; Parker, 1983; Suzby, 1986 in Morrow, 1989). Children develop their writing naturally through play as they make markings on papers, on walls or anywhere, through social interaction as they join in the social writing activities of adults like writing simple notes, writing messages on greeting cards and writing letters to family members. Theories on Early Writing Development
  30. 30. • Vygotsky (1978) asserted that the child’s language learning begins in the pre- speech communication between parents and infants. This pre-speech is built through listening and talking, to playing symbolically, to drawing, and from there to writing and reading.
  31. 31. Early writing Acquisition
  32. 32. 2. As a process, early writing development is characterized by children’s moving from playfully making marks on paper, through communicating message on paper, to making texts as artifacts. 3. Children learn the uses of written language before they learn the forms.
  33. 33. 4. As identified by Dyson(1986) and Parker (1983), children’s writing develops through constant invention and reinvention of the forms of written language. 5. children’s involvement in written language, though typically embedded in social situations and interactions, is essentially self-initiated and self-directed. Hardy (1968) identified the firth, in writing, as in talking, story making is a primary impulse and activity.
  34. 34. 6. Children learn about writing by observing more skilled others and by participating with them in literacy events. Teale (1986) pointed out that children need to work independently on the functions and forms of writing that they have experienced through interactions with literate others.
  35. 35. Lesson 2
  36. 36. Behavior of Emergent Literacy From the moment of birth, babies begin to acquire literacy information and they continue to build their knowledge of oral language, reading and writing as they go through their childhood.
  37. 37. • Goodman(1984) reported that many children have already known certain things which are necessary for reading. • Vygotsky’s assertions about higher metal functions as internalized social relationship show that children increase their independent engagement in reading activities, with previously acquired interaction with more literate others, such as their parents.
  38. 38. • Scarborough and Dobrich (1994) described emergent literacy as a highly complex concept and that children are developing simultaneously with respect to many crucial and eventual literate behavior.
  39. 39. 1. To determine which behavior can be identified for acquisition-early signs of their abilities, interests and information about literacy 2. To recognize which behavior can be associated with approximation condition when children are almost correct in their literacy skills, and
  40. 40. 3. To identify which behavior can be linked to development-practices with scaffolding, up to minimal adult supervision or no guidance at all since they can independently perform those early literacy skills. Holdaway describes young children’s approximations of reading as reading-like, play, that is almost unintelligible at first, until this reading-like play rapidly becomes picture- stimulated, page-matched and story-complete.
  41. 41. Early Literacy Behavior Physical abilities Language Skills Reading Skills Writing Skills  Playing toys  Manipulatin g clay, blocks, Legos  Attempting puzzle work  Putting together toy parts • Humming • Imitating familiar sound • Singing • Counting • Reciting • Producing pleasant sound to imitate reading voice • Browsing books and other colorful reading materials • Looking at pictures and other print materials • Scribbling • Squiggling • Drawing • Tracing • Coloring • Interested in pencil and paper activity • Attempting to makes marks on paper
  42. 42.  Holding and using pencil  Holding and using crayon  Finger painting  Using incompre hensible language but perceived as reading • Eyes focused intently on books • Recogniz ing letters, numbers • Recogniz ing pictures • Observin g adult reading • Recogniz ing lines and shapes • Imitating adult writing
  43. 43. Lesson 3
  44. 44. Characteristics of an Emergent Reader • Emergent reading pertains to the first stage in a child’s growth toward literacy. Particularly, this stage relates to the beginning experiences or the child’s first experience with print in the home and continues through early years of formal schooling. However this reading behavior does not begin at a particular age but emerges continually, thus the term called emergent reading
  45. 45. • Harris and Hodge (1981) refer to this period of acquiring the specific skills and abilities that allow reading to take place as preparedness or reading readiness. Stage 1- Emergent Readers The age of emergent readers generally ranges from 2 to 7 years old. They begin to familiarize themselves with the concepts of print related to directionality, one-to-one correspondence between the spoken and written word, and the value of picture clues to the meaning of story.
  46. 46. Stage 2-Early Readers • Picking up from the concepts attained as an emergent reader, early readers now begin to rely more heavily on the printed text than on the picture in a book. Most often, they begin to develop word recognition strategies such as monitoring, searching, crosschecking, and self- correction.
  47. 47. Stage 3- Transitional Readers • Transitional readers make the leap into fluent reading as they are generally able to read in meaningful phrases with comfortable pace and appropriate voice intonation. They are able to enumerate the four cueing system into their reading with little disruption to meaning and flow.
  48. 48. Stage 4- self-Extending Readers • Readers progress into reading independence in the fourth developmental stage. They often read a variety of textual genres and use reading as a tool for gaining new knowledge or building upon existing knowledge.
  49. 49. Factors that influence the Development of an Emergent Reader Perceptual factors Oral Language Factors Cognitive Factors Affective Factors Home Environme nt Factors • Develope d sensory skills and visual and auditory discrimin ation • Has a great deal of oral language • Conscious understan ding about language • Shows involvem ent in being read to • Has access to print materials
  50. 50. • Left to right eye progressio n • Stimulate d awareness and manipulat ion of objects/to ys • Has well- develop ed aural/or al language skills • Uses descripti ve language • Has emergi ng ability to think • Uses trial and error to discove r new things • Has a great deal of time and interest in reading • Enjoys reading aloud • Can retell stories actively • Has parent who are habitual readers themselv es • Has social interacti on with parents and peers
  51. 51. Characteristics of an Emergent Writer • Their emergent writing is characterized by playful markings to communicate something, which signals their knowledge of the uses of written language before learning the form. • Writing is always related to reading. Thus, reading is always connected to writing. The child’s experimentation with writing allows him to construct and refine the kind of knowledge about written language that makes reading possible.
  52. 52. Stages of Writing Development drawing scribb ling Making letter Like forms Reprodu cing learned units Invented spelling Conven tional spelling
  53. 53. Factors Determining the Development of an Emergent Writer Physical Language Cognitive Affective Home Environment  Drawing  Scribblin g from left to right  Making letter- like forms • Writing- like sounds • Letters sequenc es • Writing his own name • Practicing aspects of writing • Constructing his own writing. • Integrating knowledge of shapes and lines to produce a letter or number • Enjoys writing for himself • Impresses parents through his writing-like activities • Emulate adult writing • Has considera ble exposure to writing events of adults • Involvem ent in adult writing.
  54. 54. Reading and Writing independence Cooper and Kiger (2001) identified the five of early literacy learning which involve oral language, reading and writing skills of children. These stages involve the following. • Early emergent literacy stage • Emergent literacy stage • Beginning reading and writing stage • Almost fluent reading and writing stage • Fluent reading and writing stage.
  55. 55. Stages of Literacy for Children Stages of Literacy Oral Language Reading Writing Early Emergent Literacy Read aloud, story telling, make-up stories, verbal requests, oral directions, inquiries, word-play Beginning concept of print, labeling, naming, picture reading, literature enjoyment Scribbling, drawing, marking on paper, letter- like shapes, writing attempts
  56. 56. Emergent Literacy Growing oral language facility, oral language of story read, pleasure in oral language Acquired concept of print, recognition of environment print, letter-sound recognition, word recognition, meaning construction Spelling and writing conventions, familiarity with writing process, meaning construction Beginning Reading and Writing Self-corrected speech, increased oral language vocabulary, pleasure in words Additional recognition skills and strategies, meaning construction. Varied writing behavior, growing use of mechanism and convention, employed writing process
  57. 57. Almost fluent Reading and Writing Moving towards language fluency, increased pleasure in language Regular use of word recognition skills and strategies, growing meaning construction, varied reading purposes Varied writing purposes, pleasure in writing Fluent Reading and Writing Increased vocabulary, appreciation to importance of speech Capable decoder with comprehension skills, critical reading, varied reading strategies, perceived self as competent reader Purposeful writing, pleasurable writing, persuasive writing, self- editing, peer editing, perceived self as a competent writer
  58. 58. Support From Literate Adults And Others Little independ ence • Parents • Siblings • Teacher s • Other literate adults Gradual independe nce • Parents • Teacher s • Other literate adults Increasing independe nce • Parents • Teacher s • peer Towards independe nt reading • Teacher s and the learner Totally indepen dent reading learner
  59. 59. Support From Literate Adults And Others Little independ ence • Parents • Siblings • Teacher s • Other literate adults Gradual independe nce • Parents • Teacher s • Other literate adults Increasing independe nce • Parents • Teachers • peer Towards independe nt writing • Teacher s and self Totally indepen dent writing learner
  60. 60. Vehicles to Early Literacy • Halliday (1975) described how language helps children to learn to ascertain meaning from the world around them. While chomsky (1972) found that children who are introduced to literature at an early age tend to develop sophisticated language structure. • Therefore, promoting early literacy must be significantly holistic which utilize functional experiences that include the use of oral language, listening, writing and reading in a continuum.
  61. 61. • Holdaway (1979) pointed out that homes provide a setting where interaction between adults and children are socially, emotionally and intellectually conducive to literacy and growth. • Leitchter (1984) identified three ways by whci the families influence literacy development.
  62. 62. • Morrow(1989) identified five vehicles for early literacy development which include the home, language, reading, writing and school environment. The Role of the Home in Promoting Early Literacy • Family members, particularly parents, must initiate literacy activities for the child
  63. 63. • The home must provide opportunities to naturally develop the child’s ability and desire to read • All family members must read to a child and must be responsive to his queries • Parents involve the child in their reading and take him in bookstore and libraries • Parents help the child with his reading and writing
  64. 64. The Value of Language in Promoting Early Literacy • Language is frequently used meaningfully • Language is regularly used in social context • Language is use to comprehend print materials and audio-visual materials. • Language is used to promote oral communication, encourage correct pronunciation and develop vocabulary
  65. 65. The value of Reading in Promoting Early Literacy 1. Create a rich reading environment by providing varied reading materials. • Picture books-picture concept books (alphabet, numbers, and animals) cardboard concept books (alphabets, numbers and animals)picture story books • Traditional Literature Books Nursery rhymes
  66. 66. • Participation Books Touch-and-feel books • TV Program-related books/movie- related books Sesame Street Nickelodeon Disney
  67. 67. • Magazines, Newspapers and Comics • Children’s Dictionaries Children's First Dictionaries Children’s Picture Dictionaries 2. Promote awareness in environmental print 3. Enrich emergent reading through schools reading and writing materials like papers, pencils, crayons, clay or play dough, drawing pads, boards, manipulative toys, puppets and puzzle
  68. 68. 4. Enhance interest in early reading through audio-visual materials, computer software for sound-letter discrimination, vocabulary, and children’s stories 5. Nature love for reading through whole family involvement in reading activities. • Recreational Reading Nursery rhymes, fairy tales, fable and folktales, poetry, jokes and riddles
  69. 69. • Story Reading Reading aloud, bedtime stories Story telling retelling Shared book experiences • Reading magazines • Identifying Environmental Print The Value of Writing in Promoting Early Literacy 1. Create a rich writing environment by providing varied materials for writing
  70. 70. • Writing pad, tracing pads, sketch pads, drawing pads, or even recyclable papers. • Workbooks for Beginning Writers, Coloring Books, Activity Books for Alphabet and Numbers, shapes and Size 2. Recognize environmental print • Food labels usually found in the home and in the supermarket • Food chains, amusement centers, parks and malls where they love to go • Logos of their favorite cartoon characters and mascots
  71. 71. 3. Enrich emergent writing by providing audio-visual materials and computer software for sound discrimination and letter writing, picture recognition and number writing, for signs and logos discrimination 4. Nature emergent writing through whole family participation in writing activities. • First marking attempts on paper, or even on walls • Scribbling, squiggling • Copying, imitating adult-writing, tracing • Drawing, finger-painting
  72. 72. • Invented spelling • Writing his name • Drawing as if telling a story • Producing lines, shapes • Communicating to family members through writing simple notes or letters sending greeting cards and texting.
  73. 73. 5. Establish pleasurable and enjoyable writing through the following • Assistance to child’s writing attempts • Encouragement to identify what he writes • Interaction with the child about what is being written • Invitation to observe adult writing and to try make one for himself • Display of early writings to be enjoyed • Response to his queries with information and explanation.
  74. 74. The Role of the School in Promoting Early Literacy 1. The school must take home literacy as the basis for early literacy instruction 2. The school must collaborate with the parents to better understand the early literacy of an individual learner. 3. The school must always recognize the individuality of each learner to better understand his being and emergent readers and writer.
  75. 75. 4. The school must always consider the every child is an emerging learner. 5. The school must provide meaningful literacy events for emerging learners. 6. The school must recognize that children are active constructors of their own learning, but the teacher’s scaffolding is necessary, and is minimized until they can work independently.
  76. 76. 7. The school must create a literacy environment both with guided and free play, sensitive and circle time. In this way, the young learners will realize that learning is pleasurable but needs discipline, and is successful with adult supervision. 8. The collaboration of parents, teachers, school administrators and the active participation of the young learners is the key to effective early literacy education.
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