Chap 8 concept checks

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Chap 8 concept checks

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Concept Checks Centro Escolar Solalto 10 th Grade Biology
  2. 2. Concept Check 8.1
  3. 3. Academic Vocabulary No. 1 <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid </li></ul><ul><li>Light reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin cycle </li></ul><ul><li>organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place </li></ul><ul><li>pigment that gives a chloroplast its green color; uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>thick fluid contained in the inner membrane of a chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>disk-shaped sac in the stroma of a chloroplast; site of the light reactions of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>chemical reactions that convert the sun's energy to chemical energy; take place in the membranes of thylakoids in the chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>cycle in plants that makes sugar from carbon dioxide, H+ ions, and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is photosynthesis? </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process by which plants and other producers convert the energy of sunlight into the energy stored in organic molecules. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where Photosynthesis takes place In this sunflower, the greatest amount of chloroplasts are located in the leaves. A pigment called chlorophyll gives the chloroplasts – and in turn the leaves – their green color.
  6. 6. Where Photosynthesis takes place
  7. 7. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the name of the cellular organelle where photosynthesis takes place ? </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is mesophyll ? </li></ul><ul><li>The mesophyll , sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis, consists of many thin-walled cells that are usually arranged in two layers. The palisade layer is next to the upper epidermis. It consists of cylindrical cells that are packed closely together. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is mesophyll ? </li></ul><ul><li>Next to the palisade layer and making up most of the thickness of the leaf blade is the spongy layer . The spongy layer consists of roundish cells that are packed loosely together and have numerous air spaces between them. All the cells of the mesophyll contain chloroplasts . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Anatomy of a Leaf <ul><li>The leaf provides food for the rest of the plant through the process of photosynthesis . The outermost layer of the leaf is the epidermis , which is protected by the waxy coating of the cuticle . Guard cells implanted in the epidermis form pores, known as stomata , through which water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide pass. Embedded in the inner tissues of the leaf are chloroplasts , where photosynthesis occurs. The plant veins consist of two specialized tissues. Xylem conducts water from the plant to the leaf, while phloem carries food from the leaf to the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the function of the leaves stomata? </li></ul><ul><li>Stomata are tiny pores that are found on the surface of the leaf. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) enters the leaf and oxygen (O 2 ) exits the leaf through stomata. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is granum ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana (singular granum ). </li></ul>X -> Stroma Y -> Thylakoid Z -> Granum
  13. 13. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the goal of the light reactions that occur in the chloroplast? </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal is to convert energy in sunlight to chemical energy . This is done by capturing the sunlight energy through the action of Chlorophyll . This captured energy is used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen ions . The water’s electrons and hydrogen ions are then used to form ATP and NADPH . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the goal of the Calvin cycle ? </li></ul><ul><li>The Calvin cycle makes sugar from the atoms in Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plus the hydrogen ions and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH . The enzymes for the Calvin cycle are located outside the thylakoids and dissolved in the stroma . The ATP molecules made by the light reactions provide energy to make sugar . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Concept Check 8.1 <ul><li>Draw and label a simple diagram of a chloroplast that includes the following structures: outer and inner membranes, stroma, and thylakoids. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Concept Check 8.1 <ul><li>What are the reactants for photosynthesis? What are the products? </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: Carbon dioxide and water </li></ul><ul><li>Products: Sugar and oxygen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Concept Check 8.1 <ul><li>Name the two main stages of photosynthesis. How are the two stages related? </li></ul><ul><li>The two main stages are the light reactions and the Calvin cycle . The ATP and NADPH generated by the light reactions are necessary for the Calvin cycle. While the Calvin cycle recycles NADP + and ADP back to the light reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Look at the diagram on the following slide) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The two main stages of photosynthesis Light Reactions Calvin Cycle
  19. 19. Concept Check 8.2
  20. 20. Academic Vocabulary No. 2 <ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Paper Chromatography </li></ul><ul><li>Photosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between adjacent waves </li></ul><ul><li>Range of types of electromagnetic energy from gamma waves to radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical compound that determines a substance's color </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory technique used to observe the different pigments in a material </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster of chlorophyll and other molecules in a thylakoid </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What type of energy is solar energy? </li></ul><ul><li>It is electromagnetic energy. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is visible light , and what is its wavelength interval? </li></ul><ul><li>It is the section of the electromagnetic spectrum which your eyes see as different colors. Visible light consists of wavelengths from about 400 nm (nanometers) to about 700 nm. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Which have more energy shorter or longer wavelength segments of the electromagnetic spectrum? </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter wavelengths have more energy than longer wavelengths. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  25. 25. Electromagnetic Spectrum <ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Why can UV rays cause cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>UV rays have a very short wavelength, and wavelengths that are shorter than those of visible light have enough energy to damage organic molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What are the three (3) things that can happen to light when it shines on a material containing pigments? </li></ul><ul><li>It can be absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be reflected. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Why are leaves green? </li></ul><ul><li>The chloroplast pigments do not absorb green light well. Therefore, most of the green segment of the visible light passes through the leaf or bounces off of it. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Concept Check 8.2 <ul><li>Explain why a leaf appears green. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll pigments inside the leaf’s chloroplasts reflect green light. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Green Light and Chloroplasts
  31. 31. Green Light and Chloroplasts <ul><li>Oxygen Production Experiment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Concept Check 8.2 <ul><li>Describe what happens when a molecule of chlorophyll a absorbs light . </li></ul><ul><li>When a molecule of chlorophyll a absorbs light, one of the pigment’s electrons is raised from a low-energy ground state to a high-energy state . It then falls from the excited state, transferring energy to a neighboring pigment molecule. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Harvesting Light Energy
  34. 34. Concept Check 8.2 <ul><li>Besides oxygen, what two molecules are produced by the light reactions? </li></ul><ul><li>NADPH and ATP </li></ul>
  35. 35. Concept Check 8.2 <ul><li>Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions take place? </li></ul><ul><li>In the thylakoids of the chloroplasts. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Light Reactions Diagram
  37. 37. Concept Check 8.3
  38. 38. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Why would it be unfortunate for most living things, if photosynthesis stopped after the light reactions? </li></ul><ul><li>Because the 2 nd stage of photosynthesis (the Calvin cycle) is responsible for the production of raw materials for sugars and other organic compounds which are used as fuel for cellular respiration and as cellular building materials. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the Calvin cycle compared to in the first paragraph on page 168? </li></ul><ul><li>It is compared to a sugar factory. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the starting material that gets regenerated in the Calvin cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a sugar with five carbons called RuBP . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Where do the light reactions take place and what do they produce? </li></ul><ul><li>Place: Thylakoid membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Produce: ATP, NADPH, and O 2 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Where does the Calvin cycle take place and what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>Place: Stroma </li></ul><ul><li>Produces : Sugar </li></ul>
  44. 44. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What is the first step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  45. 45. Concept Check 8.3 <ul><li>What are the inputs and outputs of the Calvin cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs: CO 2 , ATP, NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs: G3P, ADP, NADP + </li></ul>
  46. 46. Calvin Cycle
  47. 47. The Calvin Cycle <ul><li>The previous diagram shows a simplified representation of some of the molecules formed during the reactions that take place in the Calvin Cycle . </li></ul><ul><li>Each gray sphere represents a carbon atom . </li></ul>
  48. 48. Concept Check 8.3 <ul><li>Which stage of photosynthesis uses each reactant from the overall photosynthesis equation? Which stage generates each product from the overall photosynthesis equation? </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: The Calvin cycle uses CO 2 , while the light reactions use H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Products: The Calvin cycle generates sugar while the light reactions generate O 2 </li></ul>
  49. 49. Overall Photosynthesis Reaction : Light Reactions + the Calvin Cycle
  50. 50. Stages of Photosynthesis <ul><li>Stage 1 : The light reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs H 2 O, ADP, NADP + </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs O 2 , ATP, NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>Site Thylakoids </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : The Calvin Cycle </li></ul><ul><li> Inputs CO 2 , ATP, NADPH </li></ul><ul><li> Outputs G3P, ADP, NADP + </li></ul><ul><li> Site Stroma </li></ul>
  51. 51. Concept Check 8.3 <ul><li>Why is the Calvin cycle called a cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>The starting material, RuBP , is regenerated each time the Calvin cycle occurs. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Calvin Cycle
  53. 53. Concept Check 8.3 <ul><li>What molecule is the direct product of photosynthesis? How is that molecule then used by plant cells? </li></ul><ul><li>The Calvin cycle produces G3P , which plant cells can use as a raw material to produce glucose and other molecules, such as starch and cellulose . </li></ul>
  54. 54. Concept Check 8.4
  55. 55. Academic Vocabulary No. 3 <ul><li>Carbon cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>process by which carbon moves from inorganic to organic compounds and back </li></ul><ul><li>process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space </li></ul>
  56. 56. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>How much organic matter per year is produced by photosynthesis? </li></ul><ul><li>160 billion metric tons </li></ul>
  57. 57. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>Before this century, how much CO 2 was present in the Earth’s atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>300 parts per million = 0.03% </li></ul>
  58. 58. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>How is the amount of CO 2 present in the Earth’s atmosphere important to plants? </li></ul><ul><li>It provides plants with plenty of carbon atoms to produce sugars through photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>How much CO 2 is present in the Earth’s atmosphere today? </li></ul><ul><li>360 parts per million = 0.036% </li></ul>
  60. 60. Reading Questions & Answers <ul><li>What might the increasing amount of CO 2 in the Earth’s atmosphere provoke in the near future? </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul>
  61. 61. Concept Check 8.4 <ul><li>Give an example of carbon moving from an inorganic compound to an organic compound in the carbon cycle. Give an example of carbon moving from an organic to an inorganic compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic to organic: Carbon atoms from CO 2 form sugar during photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic to inorganic: Carbon atoms from sugars form CO 2 molecules during cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Concept Check 8.4 <ul><li>How is carbon dioxide important to Earth's climate? </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric CO 2 traps heat from the sun that would otherwise escape into space. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) and Global Climate
  64. 64. Diagram of the Carbon Cycle
  65. 65. Thank you for your attention !

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