Chap 7 concept checks


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A review of the three stages of cellular respiration

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Chap 7 concept checks

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Concept Checks Centro Escolar Solalto 10 th Grade Biology
  2. 2. Concept Check 7.1 <ul><li>Define autotroph and heterotroph, and give an example of each? </li></ul><ul><li>An autotroph, such as a tree, produces its own food. A heterotroph, such as a bear, obtains food by eating another organism. </li></ul>Figure No. 1
  3. 3. Concept Check 7.1 <ul><li>Explain the role of food (glucose) in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is a product of photosynthesis and an ingredient in cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Glucose in Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
  5. 5. Concept Check 7.1 <ul><li>Explain how life on Earth Depends on the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Most producers use the sun’s energy to perform photosynthesis. Both producers and consumers rely on the products of photosynthesis to live. </li></ul>Figure No. 2
  6. 6. Concept Check 7.2 <ul><li>Identify the types of energy you have at the top of a staircase and as you go down the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential energy (stored energy due to an object’s position or arrangement) at the top; converted to kinetic energy (the energy of motion) as you go down. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Potential and Kinetic Energy
  8. 8. Concept Check 7.2 <ul><li>Explain how your body uses chemical energy during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise causes your cells to increase their rate of cellular respiration, increasing the conversion of chemical energy to ATP and heat. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conversion of Chemical Energy to ATP and Heat Figure No. 3
  10. 10. Concept Check 7.2 <ul><li>If a food has 10 kcal of energy, how much could it increase the temperature of 100 g of water? </li></ul><ul><li>100 ˚ C </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concept Check 7.3 <ul><li>In what way is ATP like a compressed spring? </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed springs and ATP molecules store potential energy. Potential energy is released when one of the ATP molecules’ chemical bonds is broken, particularly between the phosphate groups in the ATP tail. The phosphate groups repel each other because they have like charges. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ATP acts like a compressed spring
  13. 13. Concept Check 7.3 <ul><li>List three main types of cellular work. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical work </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical work </li></ul><ul><li>Transport work </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cellular Work
  15. 15. ATP & Cellular Work
  16. 16. Concept Check 7.3 <ul><li>What is the source of energy for regenerating ATP from ADP? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical energy from organic molecules in food. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ATP Recycling Process
  18. 18. Concept Check 7.4 <ul><li>Compare and contrast breathing and cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Both involve the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 . In cellular respiration, cells take O 2 from their surroundings and release CO 2 . In breathing, the exchange takes place in the lungs and results in exchange of gases between blood and outside air. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Breathing vs. Cellular Respiration
  20. 20. Concept Check 7.4 <ul><li>List the reactants and products in cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: glucose, oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Products: carbon dioxide, water, and ATP </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cellular Respiration Figure No. 4
  22. 22. Concept Check 7.4 <ul><li>What is meant by the “falling” of electrons to oxygen? How does this process release energy? </li></ul><ul><li>The positively charged oxygen nucleus exerts an electrical pull on negatively charged electrons from other atoms. As electrons “fall” toward the oxygen nucleus, potential energy is released. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concept Check 7.4 <ul><li>How does an electron transport chain result in the gradual release of energy stored in glucose? </li></ul><ul><li>As high-energy electrons from glucose are transferred from one electron carrier to another, a small amount of energy is released at each step. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Electron Transport Chain Figure No. 5
  25. 25. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>How is the mitochondrion’s structure suited to its function? </li></ul><ul><li>The complex folding patterns of the mitochondria creates many sites where cellular respiration reactions may occur. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Where does Cellular Respiration Occur?
  27. 27. Mitochondria: Inner Structure
  28. 28. Metabolic Pathway of Cellular Respiration
  29. 29. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>Identify the tree stages of cellular respiration, where in the cell each takes place, and how many ATP molecules it produces? </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis , in the cytoplasm, 2 ATP molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs cycle , in the matrix within the mitochondria, 2 ATP molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport + ATP Synthase , inner membranes of the mitochondria, 34 ATP molecules </li></ul>
  30. 30. Stage I: Glycolysis
  31. 31. Stage II: Krebs Cycle
  32. 32. Stage III: Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase Action
  33. 33. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>Summarize the use and production of ATP in one cycle of cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis : Uses 2 ATP; Produces 4 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle : Uses 0 ATP; Produces 2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport + ATP Synthase : Uses 0 ATP; Produces 34 ATP </li></ul>
  34. 34. ATP Production in Cellular Respiration (Aerobic) The Cellular Respiration Pinball Machine (Aerobic) Play
  35. 35. ATP Production in Cellular Respiration
  36. 36. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>How is fermentation different from cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation does not require oxygen to make ATP. It produces only 2 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose, while cellular respiration can produce 38. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>Describe on example of how fermentation in microorganisms produces human foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbes transform milk into cheese or yogurt; soybeans into soy sauce; cabbage into sauerkraut. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Concept Check 7.5 <ul><li>What is the waste product of fermentation in your muscle cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid </li></ul>
  39. 39. Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells
  40. 40. Fermentation in Yeast
  41. 41. ATP Production in Cellular Respiration (Anaerobic) The Cellular Respiration Pinball Machine (Anaerobic) Play
  42. 42. Thank you for your attention !