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Sped 413 Chapter One


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  • 1. Special Education
    in an Era of
    Inclusion and Standards
    Chapter One
    Jasmine Dybvig
  • 2. No Child Left Behind
    The No Child Left Behind act (NCLB) intends to better serve the “neediest” of students in schools and to hold schools more accountable.
    • Increased Accountability
    • 3. State accountability systems based on reading and math standards were put in place to keep schools accountable.
    • 4. Parent and Student Choice
    • 5. They have the option to move from a school that did not have adequate yearly progress (AYP) to a school that did have AYP
    • 6. They have the choice to get special academic help from other providers using NCLB funds
    • 7. Greater Flexibility with federal education funds
    • 8. States
    • 9. Schools districts
    • 10. Schools
    • 11. Reading first
    • 12. The goal is to ensure that all children can read by the end of third grade.
    • 13. Highly qualified teachers
  • 94-142
    • Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act) was passed by congress in 1975.
    • 14. In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities
    • 15. It has been amended three times
    • 16. It is now referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
  • IDEA
    • Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    • 17. School districts need to provide special education to meet the needs of children with special learning requirements
    • 18. Appropriate Evaluation
    • 19. A full, individualized evaluation must take place before a student can receive special education services
    • 20. Parents must give consent
    • 21. Multiple people must evaluate child
    • 22. Individualized Education Program (IEP)
    • 23. Summarizes student’s learning program
    • 24. Goals for student
    • 25. Includes services school should provide
  • IDEA
    • Least Restrictive Environment
    • 26. Schools need to provide students with disabilities opportunities to learn in the general education setting
    • 27. Give students the most inclusive setting possible!
    • 28. Parent participation in decision making
    • 29. Parents should be involved in IEP decisions
    • 30. They can challenge or appeal any decision
    • 31. Procedural Safeguards
    • 32. Put in place to protect parents and children
    • 33. Parents are given rights to obtain an independent educational evaluation, appeal decisions, obtain educational records, etc
  • Section 504
    “Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under section 504.”
    • This includes students that may be missed under IDEA.
    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is similar to Section 504.
    • Provides civil rights coverage for disabled individuals
    • 34. Teachers whom service those with disabilities should know the guidelines for:
    • 35. Employment
    • 36. Public accommodations
    • 37. Transportation
    • 38. Governmental operations
    • 39. Telecommunication systems
  • Standards-Based Education
    • The subject-matter taught must be linked to performance standards and content mandated by the state in the core subject areas.
    • 40. Goal is to have set goals to keep schools on track
    • 41. The ambition is for all students to be able to demonstrate the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in subject areas.
    • 42. Standards (what a student should know and be able to do)
    • 43. Content standard- knowledge, skills, and understand students attain
    • 44. Performance standard-achievement levels students reach
    • 45. Benchmarks
    • 46. Specific statement of what a student should be able to do
    • 47. Indicators
    • 48. Knowledge or skills a students has demonstrated to meet a benchmark
  • 49. RTI
    • Tier 1: High-Quality Core Instruction:
    • 50. High-quality and researched instruction in general education.
    • 51. Achieve academic and behavioral goals in general education
    • 52. Tier 2: High-Quality Targeted Supplemental Instruction:
    • 53. Interventions to supplement core instruction
    • 54. Students do not meet general expectations; they need extra support and specific instruction.
    • 55. Tier 3: High-Quality Intensive Intervention:
    • 56. Specialized interventions to meet disabilities
    • 57. If students are eligible for special education, they are given more intensive and specific interventions in many special education settings.
  • UDL
    Universal Design for Learning
    • Design of products and environments to be used by other people, without the need of specialized designs or adaptations- Universal!!
    • 58. Meets the needs of students without drawing attention to a single person
    • 59. It is proactive, not reactive!
    • 60. Uses new technology and electronic resources
    • 61. New way of looking at students with disabilities
    Differentiated Instruction
    • A wide range of students can be serviced within general education classrooms.
    • 62. Goal is to create an effective learning environment for students with different abilities as well as disabilities in the same classroom.
  • Student Accountability
    • Students are required to take standardized tests starting in grade 3
    • 63. Children with disabilities may or may not need to take the tests
    • 64. Some students with disabilities are given accommodations to take the tests
    • 65. Teachers should strive to have all students work towards taking the tests sometime in their future.
    • A very important theme in special education is providing everyone, even those with disabilities, a place to belong in society.
    • 66. Give all students a sense of acceptance and belonging
    • 67. Create educational environments which provide students with the opportunity to belong
  • Evidence-Based Education
    • Teachers are required to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the type of students they are being used with.
    • 68. Accountability is how the teachers instruct students.
    • 69. Instructional practices should be researched if they are going to be used with children with special needs.
    Diversity Consideration
    • Schools contain an immense amount of diversity among students
    • 70. The amounts of diversity in schools has increased throughout the years
    • 71. Teachers should be accepting of all students, and strive his/her best to teach all students to the best of his/her ability.
    • 72. Teachers should learn and be educated about all different kinds of people in order to best serve their students.