Chapter 9 Language ChangeBy: Angelica Becerra, Alexandra Garcia-Meza and Jennifer Duran
Historical or Diachronic Linguistics A language for which no written evidence exists but that is assumed to have been Historical linguistics is spoken at one time is a the study of language Proto-Language. change. Ex: Proto-Germanic and Historical linguistics Proto-Indo-European grew out of comparative Dead Languages are those linguistics. that no longer have any living native speakers. Ex: Old English
Semantic ChangeWhen linguists talk about semantic change they are talking about changes in the sense (literal meaning) of the word.A core concept in studying semantic change is etymology, which is the history and development of a word.
Syntactic ChangeLinguists approach it by examining gradual shifts in word order.Language Typology is the study of the arrangement of words in sentences and of morphemes within words.Two fundamental language “types” are OV(object-before-verb) and VO (verb- before-object).
Passive ConstructionDeveloped from the reanalysis of sentences containing the verb be plus an adjectival.Reanalysis occurs when speaker (language learner) misinterprets the structure of an utterance and forms new sentences based on the misinterpretation. 6
ParticlesLook like prepositions but can be movedFor example: John picked up a book. -The words UP A BOOK do not form a prepositional phrase; UP is a particle and can be moved.For example: John picked a book up. 7
AdjectivalA word used as a modifier but may not itself be an adjectiveFor example: The phrase “the torn dress” -The word torn is an adjectival because it modifies a noun but it is not an adjective. 8
Active SentencesConsisting of verb be plus an adjectival. Active Passive Main verb be + adjectival Auxiliary be + past participle -Her dress was torn (and dirty). -Her dress was torn (by someone). -This store has always been closed on -This store has been closed by Sundays. Hurricane Katrina. 9
Auxiliary Do and Negative Use of auxiliary do was established in the Early modern English period in 1700 (Old English) - Used only as main verb. As in John did his homework. By modern English period, a completely separate use of do as an auxiliary had been established. As in John did not finish his homework. Negative use of do grew out of change in the rule for forming negative sentences. Negative rule (Old English) : Insert not after first verb. Negative rule (Modern English) : Insert not after first auxiliary verb; if no auxiliary insert do. 10
Morphological ChangeHave two unique morphological characteristics. -Inflected tenses for verbs present and past. -Inflected tenses involves a change only in the form of the verb. -For example, see by changing vowel turns to saw. -Past tense walk is formed by adding suffix, as in walked. 11
Periphrastic TenseInvolves the addition of another wordFuture involves adding the word will. - I will hear.Perfect involves adding a form of the word have. - I was hearing.Progressive involves adding a form of the word be. - I had heard. 12
Dental Suffix Germanic languages are the only group that developed a dental suffix for the past tense. Dental suffix refers to /t/, /d/, or /əd/, because in many languages these sounds are formed with the tongue touching the back of the upper teeth. Regular verbs in English form their past tense by adding a dental suffix as in walk/ walked, rub/rubbed, and start/started. 13
Weak Verbs and Strong Verbs Weak verbs are what linguists call “regular verbs” Strong verbs are verbs which form their past tense solely with a vowel change. As in drive/ drove, sing/sang, and give/gave. There are verbs that form their past tense with both dental suffix and a vowel change. As in bring/brought. Dental suffix is what’s relevant and makes it a weak verb. 14
Phonological Change By far the most significant and systematic sound change to affect the Germanic languages is what has come to be known as Grimm’s Law.(500B.C.E) This was the period after Germanic had separated from Indo- European but before Germanic developed into separate languages (i.e., English, German, Swedish, etc.) All modern languages exhibit the effects of Grimm’s Law, but none of the non-Germanic languages do.
Grimm’s Laws Consists of a series of sound changes affecting consonants. Proto-IE Proto- Non-Germanic Germanic Germanic1. Voiceless stops Became the Corresponding fricatives/p/ /f/ Pater(Latin) father/t/ /th/ Tres(Spanish) three/k/ /h/ Cord(Greek) heart2.Voiced stops Became the voiceless/b/ /p/ Kannabis(Greek) hemp/d/ /t/ Dos (Spanish) two/g/ /k/ Genu(Latin) knee
Cognates: Words such as pater and father, which are the same word developed in two different languages.Borrowings: Words that’s are imported from one language into another.EX. The English word paternal was borrowed from Latin long after Grimm’s law took place. Thus, Latin pater and English paternal are not cognates; rather, they are essentially the same word.
Causes of Change Functionalism:Language is thought to change in order to help speakers communicate more efficiently.Ex. Caramel changed from/ kaeremel/ to karmel because it is easier to pronounce. Misapprehension:Language is thought to change when speakers make a mistake in processing it due to structures that can be interpreted ambiguously. Misapprehension can also account for numerous changes in other components of the grammar. Internal Change: are due to misapprehension rather than functional considerations. External Change: we distinguish such apparently spontaneous changes from those that are caused by social factors.
Helpful Tips as EducatorsKeep language typology into consideration when teaching ELLs.Particles and reanalysis of sentences containing the main verb be plus an adjectival can be the most challenging for language learners.Cause of language change can be both external and internal.