Spread the WordDiffusing Educational Innovation Through Social MediaJeff DunganShanghai American SchoolTwitter: @jdunganIM...
InnovativeNowInnovate InnovationSkills
Got Innovation?• Innovativness Scale (Hurt, Joseph, & Cook, 1977)• PORGI: Perceived OrganizationalInnovativeness Scale (Hu...
Connectivism(Seimens, 2004)Social Constructivism(Vygotsky, 1978 )Innovation Diffusion Theory(Rogers)
IDT Theory-BriefHistory1903Corn SeedsTetracycline
Dungan, 2013
http://www.courinvestor.net/images/Adoption-cycle-with-Chasm.png
Opinion Leaders
#ofAdopters050100TimeDungan, 2013EarlierTake-offLate Adopters
Opinion Leaders
Dungan, 2013
Positive DevianceZeitlin, Ghassemi, & Mansour, 1990
Observability, perceived ease of useand perceived usefulness are ofparamount importance to reducinguncertainties for the l...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentlead...
http://www.olecommunity.comSiemens, 2005
http://www2.ogilvy.com.au
Teacher Innovation• Do we provide PD around structuringPLNs for our staff?• Do we demonstrate to teachers how toleverage s...
Student Innovation• Do we bother to teach it?• Do we teach students how to form theirown social media presence?• Do we tea...
Spread the WordDiffusing Educational Innovation Through Social MediaJeff DunganShanghai American SchoolTwitter: @jdungan
Image Credits• Title Slide: IMG: http://beakbane.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/InnovationImage-580x421.jpg• Value Added M...
Soc med&idt education_pres_slideshare
Soc med&idt education_pres_slideshare
Soc med&idt education_pres_slideshare
Soc med&idt education_pres_slideshare
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  • My talk today will discuss the diffusion of innovaitons within education and organizations. This research and the theory I will discuss is hardly new, however, I do feel that in education, there is often a disconnect between tech and instructional innovations and the theory behind diffusion of innovations. Introduce Curves, innovation diffusion theory, social media, and some other ramblings.
  • *Now let’s switch gears a little bit. Let’s talk about us, the adults, the people in charge of innovation. Administrators, teachers, & those dealing with school development initiatives *Does this resonate with you? Would it resonate with your staff?
  • One of the most talked about 21st century words is innovation. But how we innovate has become very interesting to me, especially how different initiatives move through schools. But innovation is something to consider now. Innovations in schools take many forms and happens all the time in schools: *Maco level innovation would be something like 1:1 laptop program. *Micro might be refining a lesson for your second section of the day since something did quite go so well the first time around.
  • Did you know you can measure innovativeness? Would be interesting to assess regional perceptions of innovativeness across international schools. Or compare individual ratings of innovativeness against Porgi results. great correlational analysis that might lead to some data driven observations of your staff and will allow for insight on how ready your organization is to adopt inovations.
  • I have been noticing for some time now the disconnect between research and the way school decide on and implement innovations. I am intersted in knowing how schools innovate. What frameworks do they use for diffusing innovations? Are they familiar with theorietical frameworks for diffusing innovation? What effect does social media have on diffusing educational innovations between schools? Click My research is largely focused on Roger’s Innovation Diffusion Theory but when we add Social media into the mix, that theory is bound by other theories such as connectivism and social constructivism
  • Rogers Ryan and Gross (1943)-Diffusion of hybrid corn seeds among farmers in Iowa Coleman, Katz, and Menzel’s (1957) study of adoption rates among doctors prescribing tetracycline Everett Rogers unifying theory of innovation diffusion.
  • Rogers’ rate of innovation diffusion *Early adopters and Innovators are the *ones tapped into social networking? *They are connected. *these people are bringing new ways of doing things into organizations, or they are bringing modified, re-invented innovations into organizations. * Heterophilic networks-Many different perspectives from different fields * their social media connections online present a platform for an organization to showcase its innovativeness as a whole. If the old saying perception is reality holds true, then having a number of your staff with a strong online presence, sharing what your school is doing, makes your school seem highly innovative. This attracts innovative people to want to join your organization. The importance of this cannot be overstated in today’s highly competitive international school teacher market where schools are in competition to bring innovative, technologically literate people to their school. United World College seems to be a leader right now in this regard. This raises the questions about social networks that are used for professional growth and development. Who is in your network, where are your ideas coming from? Is diversity an aspect of your twitter feed?
  • *Chris Maloney-a marketing strategist, consultant, speaker and blogger based in Sydney, Australia-16% rule. * Malcolm Gladwell defined the other side of this chasm as “ The Tipping Point ” *Simon Sinek has spoken about this in terms of business diffusing products to the masses in his talk about the “Why” of companies. *Geoffrey Moore defined this gap between Early Adopters and the Early Majority as “The Chasm”, in his insightful book called Crossing the Chas m *Rogers Critical Mass *Tarde, the dude from 1903, he probably called it something else...but in french.
  • Scarcity vs. social proof Examples of this now are digital gamification of Education, Minecraft in education, and MOOCs. There are certainly others Interestingly, I would say that 1:1 laptop programs in East Asian International schools as a whole has crossed this chasm, however, it was less educational and pedagogical innovation that drove this to critical mass. Rather, it was competition for limited resources (students) and a need for school to differentiate themselves from competitors in an extrmemly competitive marketplace. Indiv. on other side of chasm what proof that things work. These are your opinion leaders. They want to know that if they are gonna put their name on it, it is worthwhile, functional, and will be easy for others to use.
  • Opinion leaders are not the first one to adopt, they are not innovators or early adopters. They are pragmatists. They look at the bigger picture. They are reluctant to run until the obervability, the trialability, th eperceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use becomes identifiable and quantifiable. These people are the bridge across the chasm and they are hugely important in your schools for actual diffusion and sustainability of new ideas, methods, technologies.
  • Opinion leaders are not the first one to adopt, they are not innovators or early adopters. They are pragmatists. They look at the bigger picture. They are reluctant to run until the obervability, the trialability, th eperceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use becomes identifiable and quantifiable. These people are the bridge across the chasm and they are hugely important in your schools for actual diffusion and sustainability of new ideas, methods, technologies. Opinion leaders will cause a shift in innovations to be adopted earlier and will increase the rate of diffusion. Ask yourself, who are the opion leaders in my organization.
  • These are people with high social capital among their peers. They tend to be popular, are outgoing, and have social networks that extend across interorganizational cliques and outside of the organization. Oh yeah, and they network-Conferences, social media, etc.
  • But let’s come back to our distribution of adoption rates. With laser point to right side of curve- What happens when we cross the chasm? is it hopeless for the late majority and laggards? What about our opinion leaders? Can innovation happen after introduction? I believe there is innovation and positive happenings on the other side of the curve
  • This gets us to the whole idea of change. I believe people like change. That may seem contrary to human nature but I think people thrive off change. Change ultimately is something as educational technologists, that we thrive off. In the most simplist of terms, it is our livlihood. What people who voice issues about change really are saying is that they do not like poorly thought out change, change for the sake of changing if innovation’s effects are not observable, or if it adds uneeded or unintended complexity to the system.
  • What happens on the other side of the curve. * Positive Deviance (Zeitlin, Ghassemi, & Mansour, 1990) describes how individuals who may not demonstrate the characteristics of innovators can still be innovative within an organization (Sternin, 2003). There is now a whole school of thought around Positive Deviance, they even have a website-Positivedeviance.org and there is a growing body of case studies and research that is supporting positive deviance as a legitimate theortical framework. * Social media plays a trememdous role in spreading re-invented innovations, modifications and ideas that can reach those on the back side of this curve as well. However, these people need more support in order to leverage the social media and see its benefits. * Reinvention, modification, organizational adaptations.
  • The three most important factors that will either lead to diffusion or kill it dead in its tracks...Observability, PEU, and PU The late majority and Laggards need to see this. Remember, they want proof. They don’t care about being innvators or early adopters. Proof.
  • 8 circumstances necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools...but these atributes hold true for any innovation within an organization. Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • We can take the guess work out of diffusing new innovations into our schools. 8 Factors necessary for diffusing innovation within K-12 Schools Surry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004) They identified eight conditions necessary for successful diffusion of innovations in K-12 schools including: dissatisfaction with status quo, adequate time, resources, skills and knowledge, rewards, incentives, participation, commitment, and leadership.
  • In conclusion: Perhaps the greatest innovation headed our way in the individualization of education PLNs utilizing social media sites for the creating of individualized learning trajectories * PLNs=Learners create connections and develop a network that contributes to their professional development and knowledge (Siemens, 2005). * PLNs represent self directed learning where a participant actively selects and filters a variety of media, and connecting to other individuals with similar learning interests with the aim of furthering their own knowledge. *Your organizational innovators and early adopters are tapped into their PLNs-The trick is crossing the gap and getting all teachers to take carege of their professional development and use social media to stay relevant. Share story of my own growth-Science teacher->Tech via getting tapped into RSS and Twitter.
  • In international schools where people can be isolated from one another, making global connections with other teachers, administrators and ICT people is critical to moving our schools forward and sharing the innovations that will allow us to do that.
  • PLNs utilizing social media sites for the creating of individualized learning trajectories * PLNs=Learners create connections and develop a network that contributes to their professional development and knowledge (Siemens, 2005). * PLNs represent self directed learning where a participant actively selects and filters a variety of media, and connecting to other individuals with similar learning interests with the aim of furthering their own knowledge. *Your organizational innovators and early adopters are tapped into their PLNs-Share story of my own growth-Science teacher->Tech via getting tapped into RSS and Twitter. Do we provide PD around structuring PLNs for our staff? Do we demonstrate to teachers how to leverage social media for professional learning? Does your school realize the hidden benefits of having connected teachers? Do we provide time for teachers to participate in their PLNs during the work day?
  • So what about social medi and students.... Schools want to know what value is in Social Media-are benefits observable. The easy answer is No. But this is not because we cannot measure these skills, it is because we need to redesign our assessments and curriculum to assess these skills. Can we measure 21st Century Skills? Yes, absolutely *21st Century Skills Assessment *Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills-University of Melbourne * [w]hat needs to be incorporated across the curriculum is a social learning network--if we focus only on the "social" and "network," we are missing the mark *If we want social networking to make a difference in instruction and learning, the medium should also be used for its publishing and production aspects, reaching higher levels of collaboration and creativity, and for enabling learners to network with experts and peers in a manner where their work gains legitimacy within the larger community of experts in various fields Deubel, 2009) Makes learning moire interesting ( Reynard, R. (2008)
  • My talk today will discuss the diffusion of innovaitons within education and organizations. This research and the theory I will discuss is hardly new, however, I do feel that in education, there is often a disconnect between tech and instructional innovations and the theory behind diffusion of innovations. Introduce Curves, innovation diffusion theory, social media, and some other ramblings.
  • Soc med&idt education_pres_slideshare

    1. 1. Spread the WordDiffusing Educational Innovation Through Social MediaJeff DunganShanghai American SchoolTwitter: @jdunganIMG: http://beakbane.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/InnovationImage-580x421.jpg
    2. 2. InnovativeNowInnovate InnovationSkills
    3. 3. Got Innovation?• Innovativness Scale (Hurt, Joseph, & Cook, 1977)• PORGI: Perceived OrganizationalInnovativeness Scale (Hurt &Teigen, 1977)
    4. 4. Connectivism(Seimens, 2004)Social Constructivism(Vygotsky, 1978 )Innovation Diffusion Theory(Rogers)
    5. 5. IDT Theory-BriefHistory1903Corn SeedsTetracycline
    6. 6. Dungan, 2013
    7. 7. http://www.courinvestor.net/images/Adoption-cycle-with-Chasm.png
    8. 8. Opinion Leaders
    9. 9. #ofAdopters050100TimeDungan, 2013EarlierTake-offLate Adopters
    10. 10. Opinion Leaders
    11. 11. Dungan, 2013
    12. 12. Positive DevianceZeitlin, Ghassemi, & Mansour, 1990
    13. 13. Observability, perceived ease of useand perceived usefulness are ofparamount importance to reducinguncertainties for the late majorityto finally accept an innovation (Agarwal,& Prasad, 1999).
    14. 14. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    15. 15. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    16. 16. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    17. 17. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    18. 18. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    19. 19. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    20. 20. dissatisfaction with statusquoadequate timeresourcesrewards & incentivesskills and knowledgeparticipation & commitmentleadershipSurry, Porter, Jackson, & Hall (2004)
    21. 21. http://www.olecommunity.comSiemens, 2005
    22. 22. http://www2.ogilvy.com.au
    23. 23. Teacher Innovation• Do we provide PD around structuringPLNs for our staff?• Do we demonstrate to teachers how toleverage social media for professionallearning?• Does your school realize the hiddenbenefits of having connected teachers?• Do we provide time for teachers toparticipate in their PLNs during the workday?
    24. 24. Student Innovation• Do we bother to teach it?• Do we teach students how to form theirown social media presence?• Do we teach students how to marketthemselves and their learning?• Do we provide time for students toinnovate?
    25. 25. Spread the WordDiffusing Educational Innovation Through Social MediaJeff DunganShanghai American SchoolTwitter: @jdungan
    26. 26. Image Credits• Title Slide: IMG: http://beakbane.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/InnovationImage-580x421.jpg• Value Added Mind Map:http://www.mindmapinspiration.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/Value-added-thought.jpg• Global Connections:http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-2VJZ0ogYDAs/UY6WMqvHJGI/AAAAAAAAACs/Xmqjp7KlxWc/s1600/blue_earth_with_s• 8-Ball: http://lojinhamoderna.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/magic-8-ball-game_37261531.jpg• Change: http://ftpil.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/change.jpg• Maloney: http://chrismaloney.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/accelerating-diffusion-of-innovation-maloneys-16-rule.jpg

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