<ul><li>Contextual Models </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining women’s political participation in cross-national perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Define political participation </li></ul><ul><li>What factors influence women’s political participation at the individual level? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors at the macro-level influence women’s political participation? Why build a multi-level model? Advantages vs. Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>4. Building the model using European Social Survey data </li></ul>
European Social Survey There are different ways of trying to improve things in [name of a country] or help prevent things from going wrong. During the last 12 months, have you done any of the following? Have you: (a) contacted a politician, government or local government official?, (b) worked in a political party or action group? (c) worked in another organization or association? (d) worn or displayed a campaign badge/sticker? (e) signed a petition? (f) taken part in a lawful public demonstration? (g) boycotted certain products?
Political Participation GENDER No Yes Men 56,8 43,2 Women 62,2 37,8 Total 59,7 40,3
NO YES CZ Czech Republic MEN 67,65 32,35 WOMEN 69,41 30,59 DE Germany MEN 45,69 54,31 WOMEN 49,84 50,16 EE Estonia MEN 82,61 17,39 WOMEN 82,09 17,91 ES Spain MEN 46,05 53,95 WOMEN 50,68 49,32 FR France MEN 44,71 55,29 WOMEN 44,88 55,12 GB United Kingdom MEN 51,67 48,33 WOMEN 50,09 49,91 GR Greece MEN 75,73 24,27 WOMEN 82,30 17,70 PL Poland MEN 77,92 22,08 WOMEN 80,96 19,04 SE Sweden MEN 31,45 68,55 WOMEN 27,05 72,95 SK Slovakia MEN 60,55 39,45 WOMEN 67,13 32,87 UA Ukraine MEN 66,26 33,74 WOMEN 72,26 27,74
Women’s Organizations in Poland The Women's Parliamentary Group ( Parlamentarna Grupa Kobiet - PGK) established 1991 “ First, it was too early for women’s rights, and then it was too late. Immediately after 1989, many MPs were of the opinion that the economy and politics were more important. I thought so too, in spite of being a woman. Because the problems of the transformation concerned everybody, regardless of sex.” -- Olga Krzyżanowska, MP during the years 1989-2001, deputy Speaker of the Parliament and then Senator. http://www.boell.pl/downloads/Gender_Issues_2009_WWW.pdf
“ Women's Congress” ( Kongres Kobiet) Women’s Organizations in Poland „ We believe that [gender equality in politics] will provide an opportunity for a fuller selection of candidates with more diverse experience and sensitivity to a wider spectrum of social problems. This is a chance to change the quality of Polish politics. Women are different, see the world differently...Women can enrich policy.” -- Kongres Kobiet’s Open Letter to Members of Parliament
<ul><li>Consequences of W omen’s P olitical I nequality </li></ul><ul><li>“ Those last 20 years cannot be appreciated enough as far as emancipation of women for independence, privacy and certain areas of public life is concerned; however, on the political level, we lost those two decades horribly. Our powerlessness concerning the most crucial issues of political freedoms, i.e. the shamefully lost issue of abortion, is our defeat . ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Teresa Oleszczuk, feminist activist and co-founder of La Strada , p . 42 http://www.boell.pl/downloads/Gender_Issues_2009_WWW.pdf </li></ul></ul>