Cmss Iv

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Cmss Iv

  1. 1. Comparative Methods in Social Sciences, I V Kazimierz M. Slomczynski Irina T omescu-Dubrow
  2. 2. Surveys in one country vs. surveys in two or more countries <ul><li>Typology of cross-national and international surveys: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(a) replicated surveys </li></ul><ul><li>(b) planned surveys for two or more countries </li></ul><ul><li>(c) international surveys </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problems of conducting comparative survey research <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Country selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for comparative survey research </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of comparative survey research </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ideal strategy for survey research and cultural contexts <ul><li>  Ideal situation: </li></ul><ul><li>- a representative sample </li></ul><ul><li>- face-to-face interviewing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Cultural context influences our construction of a sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural context influence our mode of questioning : Questionnare and interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Inter-cultural equivalence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cultural contexts <ul><li>- Cultural context influences our construction of a sample. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cultural context influence the selection of a specific mode of questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. The notion of equivalence <ul><li>Equivalence i s an essential equality and interchangeability. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal vs. functional equivalence. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal equivalence (identical procedure) is interesting only if it leads to functional equivalence (identical meanings in different contexts). </li></ul><ul><li>In cross-national research equivalence must be functional rather then formal. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Equivalence in cross-national research <ul><li>Equivalence applies to: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the sampling, and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the questionnaire, and interrogative procedure. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sampling <ul><li>First, selection of countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing similarity. Maximizing diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Large N, Small N </li></ul><ul><li>Second, w hat does it mean to have equivalent samples? </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent unites of obsrvation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Questionnaire <ul><li>How to establish the equivalence of the questionnaire items? </li></ul><ul><li>Complex strategies and simplified strateges </li></ul><ul><li>The use of bilinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Back translation . Expert evaluation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Interrogative strategy <ul><li>Is the interview situation equally “natural” in different cultures? </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling the interview situation: from public to private </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewers. Training and control procedures. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quality <ul><li>The Globalisation of Public Opinion Research </li></ul><ul><li>By Anthony Heath, Stephen Fisher and Shawna Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 8: 297-333 (2005) </li></ul>

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