Cmss Iii


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Cmss Iii

  1. 1. Comparative Methods in Social Sciences, I II Kazimierz M. Slomczynski Irina T omescu-Dubrow
  2. 2. Survey research in social sciences <ul><li>  (a) Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Key words: sampling and questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of questioning: </li></ul><ul><li>- face-to-face, FTF (use of laptop computers, CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing) </li></ul><ul><li>- telephone interviewing, CATI - Computer-Assisted Telephones Interviewing (Japanese experience with Fax machines) </li></ul><ul><li>- mail questionnaires, MQ </li></ul><ul><li>- internet contacts, ICI </li></ul>
  3. 3. (b) History <ul><li>Literary Digest , 1916 - predicting Woodrow Wilson’s election as president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1936 the Digest , on the basis of 2.3 million “votes” from its readers reported that Alf Landon was far more popular than Franklin D. Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The 1930s and George Gallup. His success in correctly predicting Roosevelt’s victory. </li></ul>
  4. 4. (c) Academic vs. non-academic surveys <ul><li>- Statistical-offices surveys (eg., Current PopulationSurvey, CPS; Labor Force Survey, LFS) </li></ul><ul><li>- Marketing surveys (eg., in segmentation research to determine the demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of potential buyers) </li></ul><ul><li>- Political opinion polls (eg., TV stations & newspapers organize polls, or use specilized firms to conduct public opinion research). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ideal strategy for survey research <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- a representative sample </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- face-to-face interviewing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of surveys. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of cross-cultural survey research <ul><li>Professionalization of survey research since the 1930s. </li></ul><ul><li>Hadley Cantril’s study(1948-1949) (William Buchanan and Hadley Cantril, How Nations See Each Other , 1953). S ix West European countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway), plus Australia, Mexico, and United States </li></ul><ul><li>  Classical study Almond and Verba (Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture , 1963) . States, West Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and Mexico </li></ul>
  7. 7. Information on cross-national surveys <ul><li>Index to International Public Opinion. Annual. 1978/79 - present. New York: Greenwood Press. Includes data from single-nation surveys by subject, multinational surveys by region, and world surveys by subject. Up to date. </li></ul><ul><li>World Opinion Update: A Monthly Summary of Opinion on Issues of International Importance . 1977- present. Williamstown, MA: Survey Research Consultants International. Monthly issues average about 10-12 pages and include selected questions, responses, and source information. Up to date. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main cross-national surveys <ul><li>European Social Survey </li></ul><ul><li>International Social Survey Program </li></ul><ul><li>World Value System </li></ul><ul><li>*** </li></ul><ul><li>Eurobarometer and its extensions </li></ul>
  9. 9. EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY (ESS) <ul><li>Detailed description: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SURVEY PROGRAM (ISSP) <ul><li>The ISSP was founded in 1983 as a platform for close collaboration between four existing surveys: </li></ul><ul><li>- the General Social Survey (GSS , USA ), the Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften (ALLBUS , Germany ), the British Social Attitudes Survey (BSA , GB ), and the National Social Science Survey (NSSS , Australia) . </li></ul><ul><li>In subsequent years other countries have joined the program. I n 1987-1988 there were 8 participating countries, in 1990 – 11 countries, 1992 – 18 countries, 1994 - 23 countries, 1996 - 24 countries , 1998 – 32 countries s. Currently more than 40 . </li></ul>
  11. 11. WORLD VALUES SURVEYS and EUROPEAN VALUES SURVEYS <ul><li>WVS , 1981-1984, 1990-1993, and 1995-1997, 2000, 2005 , and later years Principal investigator:  Ronald Inglehart - Over 60 surveys participated in the 1995-1997 study. More countries in later years </li></ul>
  12. 12. Data Archives <ul><li>Two general organizations </li></ul><ul><li>1. The International Federation of Data Organizations for the Social Sciences, IFDOSS </li></ul><ul><li>2. Council of European Social Science Data Archives </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Main main data archives: </li></ul><ul><li>ICPSR, the UK Data Archive at the University of Essex, and the German Data Archive in Koln (Cologne) - GESIS, Polish ADS </li></ul>