Comparative Methods in Social Sciences, II Kazimierz M. Slomczynski & Irina Tomescu Dubrow
From lecture I <ul><li>Comparative methods  are specific in that they address  problems inherent in  cross-national  and/o...
Typology of approaches <ul><li>Hypothesis testing approach in cross-national research </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed typol...
Macro-macro, Ia <ul><li>1. Type of explanation:  macro-macro . Both dependent variable and independent variable(s) are def...
1 2 135 26 N 0 3 136 15 N-1 … … … … 0 5 145 14 9 0 2 156 22 8 1 2 133 20 7 0 2 144 21 6 0 4 150 25 5 … … 135 13 4 1 5 145 ...
Macro-macro, Ib <ul><li>Studies of the World System and its Elements </li></ul><ul><li>1b. Relational characteristics: </l...
9 1 5 0 2 1 1 G 13 1 5 1 2 1 12 F 20 0 3 0 2 1 0 E 90 1 1 1 1 1 0 D 57 0 3 1 5 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 9 8 24 B 0 27 36 0 0 256 0 A ...
Micro-micro <ul><li>Type of explanation:  micro-micro . The dependent variable is micro (on individual level) and independ...
Survey research in three countries <ul><li>Matrix  A  =  a ij  </li></ul><ul><li>where  a  is a value of variable j for in...
… … … … … 0 1 5 4 1 Country C 1 2 5 6 2300 0 3 6 5 2299 … … … … … 0 5 3 4 3 0 2 7 2 2 1 2 3 4 1 Country B 0 2 9 6 2500 0 4...
Macro-micro <ul><li>Type of explanation:  macro-micro . The dependent variable is micro (on individual level) and independ...
… … … … … … … … 53 1 7 0 1 5 4 1 Sample from country B 33 1 5 1 2 5 6 2300 … … … … … … … … 33 1 5 0 5 3 4 3 33 1 5 0 2 7 2...
Stages of comparative research, 1 <ul><li>Selection of the problem and theory </li></ul><ul><li>- Abduction / sociology of...
Stages of comparative research, 2 <ul><li>2. Research design 1: Initial external analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing the...
Stages of comparative research, 3 <ul><li>3. Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>- Set up files </li></ul><ul><li>- Collect ...
Stages of comparative research, 4 <ul><li>4. Research design 2: Internal analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data analyses </li></u...
Stages of comparative research, 5-6 <ul><li>5-6. Reformulation of theory </li></ul><ul><li>-  Reformulation theory in inte...
Stages of comparative research, 7 <ul><li>7. Reporting </li></ul>
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Cmss Ii

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Cmss Ii

  1. 1. Comparative Methods in Social Sciences, II Kazimierz M. Slomczynski & Irina Tomescu Dubrow
  2. 2. From lecture I <ul><li>Comparative methods are specific in that they address problems inherent in cross-national and/or historical studies . </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity: </li></ul><ul><li>How questions should be asked? </li></ul><ul><li>What rules should be followed? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Typology of approaches <ul><li>Hypothesis testing approach in cross-national research </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed typology takes into account the nature of dependent variable ( explanandum ) and independent variable(s) ( explanans ). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Macro-macro, Ia <ul><li>1. Type of explanation: macro-macro . Both dependent variable and independent variable(s) are defined for a country as a whole. This refers to the Country-Level Data, CLD. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Studies on Nations' Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>1a. Positional characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix A = a ij </li></ul><ul><li>where a is a value of variable j in country i. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1 2 135 26 N 0 3 136 15 N-1 … … … … 0 5 145 14 9 0 2 156 22 8 1 2 133 20 7 0 2 144 21 6 0 4 150 25 5 … … 135 13 4 1 5 145 11 3 1 2 123 26 2 0 1 100 25 1 CVAR4 CVAR3 CVAR2 CVAR1 Country-level variables Countries
  6. 6. Macro-macro, Ib <ul><li>Studies of the World System and its Elements </li></ul><ul><li>1b. Relational characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix B = b kl </li></ul><ul><li>where b is a value of variable showing the relationship between country k in country l. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 9 1 5 0 2 1 1 G 13 1 5 1 2 1 12 F 20 0 3 0 2 1 0 E 90 1 1 1 1 1 0 D 57 0 3 1 5 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 9 8 24 B 0 27 36 0 0 256 0 A Visits of kings G F E D C B A Countries Count-ries
  8. 8. Micro-micro <ul><li>Type of explanation: micro-micro . The dependent variable is micro (on individual level) and independent variable(s) is also micro (on individual level) but research is done in separate countries and the results are compared. This refers to the Individual-Level Data, ILD. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Survey research in three countries <ul><li>Matrix A = a ij </li></ul><ul><li>where a is a value of variable j for individual i. </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix B = b ij </li></ul><ul><li>where b is a value of variable j for individual i. </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix C = c ij </li></ul><ul><li>where c is a value of variable j for individual i. </li></ul>
  10. 10. … … … … … 0 1 5 4 1 Country C 1 2 5 6 2300 0 3 6 5 2299 … … … … … 0 5 3 4 3 0 2 7 2 2 1 2 3 4 1 Country B 0 2 9 6 2500 0 4 6 4 2499 … … … … … 1 5 5 1 3 1 2 3 6 2 0 2 2 5 1 Country A IVAR4 IVAR3 IVAR2 IVAR1 Individual-level variables Cases
  11. 11. Macro-micro <ul><li>Type of explanation: macro-micro . The dependent variable is micro (on individual level) and independent variable(s) is macro (on country-level). This combines ILD and CLD </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix A = a ijk </li></ul><ul><li>where a is a value of variable j for individual i in country k. </li></ul>
  12. 12. … … … … … … … … 53 1 7 0 1 5 4 1 Sample from country B 33 1 5 1 2 5 6 2300 … … … … … … … … 33 1 5 0 5 3 4 3 33 1 5 0 2 7 2 2 33 1 5 1 2 3 4 1 Sample from country B 23 0 3 0 2 9 6 2500 … … … … … … … … 23 0 3 1 5 5 1 3 23 0 3 1 2 3 6 2 23 0 3 0 2 2 5 1 Sample from country A CVAR CVAR2 CVAR1 IVAR4 IVAR3 IVAR2 IVAR1 Country-level variables Individual-level variables Cases
  13. 13. Stages of comparative research, 1 <ul><li>Selection of the problem and theory </li></ul><ul><li>- Abduction / sociology of knowledge (interests and values) </li></ul><ul><li>- Theoretical tradition and background </li></ul><ul><li>- Literature review </li></ul><ul><li>- Internationalization (contacts with different cultures) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of comparative research, 2 <ul><li>2. Research design 1: Initial external analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing the countries </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing the time periods </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stages of comparative research, 3 <ul><li>3. Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>- Set up files </li></ul><ul><li>- Collect data in systematic fashion </li></ul><ul><li>- Field notes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stages of comparative research, 4 <ul><li>4. Research design 2: Internal analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Building models (statistical, or qualitative, or both) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stages of comparative research, 5-6 <ul><li>5-6. Reformulation of theory </li></ul><ul><li>- Reformulation theory in internal analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Refit of theory in internal analysis to overall theory in external analysis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stages of comparative research, 7 <ul><li>7. Reporting </li></ul>
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