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Chapter20 radiology and diagnostic imaging terminology
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Chapter20 radiology and diagnostic imaging terminology


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  • 1. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging
  • 2. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
    • X-rays
      • High-energy electromagnetic waves
      • Travel in straight lines
      • Shorter wave length than visible light
      • Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities
      • Capable of exposing a photographic plate (X-ray film)
        • Much the same way as a camera exposes film
  • 3.
    • X-rays
      • Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body
      • Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease
    • Radiology
      • Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of X-rays
    Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  • 4. PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging
  • 5.
    • Pronounced
      • ( an -jee-oh-kar-dee- OG -rah-fee)
      • ( CAR -dee-ak kath -eh-ter-ih- ZAY -shun)
    • Defined
      • Specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery
      • Usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through circulatory system to the heart
    Angiocardiography (Cardiac Catheterization)
  • 6. Angiography
    • Pronounced
      • ( an -jee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Series of X-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance
  • 7. Cerebral Angiography
    • Pronounced
      • (seh- REE -bral an -jee- OG -rah-fee)
      • ( SER -eh-bral an -jee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray possible
  • 8. Renal Angiography
    • Pronounced
      • ( REE -nal an -jee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium
  • 9. Arteriography
    • Pronounced
      • ( ar -tee-ree- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the bloodstream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter
  • 10. Arthrography
    • Pronounced
      • (ar- THROG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Process of taking X-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint
        • Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible
  • 11. Barium Enema (BE)
    • Pronounced
      • ( BAH -ree-um EN -eh-mah)
    • Defined
      • Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum
      • Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
  • 12. Barium Swallow (Upper GI Series)
    • Pronounced
      • ( BAH -ree-um SWALL -oh)
    • Defined
      • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
        • X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract
  • 13. Bronchography
    • Pronounced
      • (brong- KOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Bronchial examination via X-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance
  • 14. Cholangiography (Intravenous)
    • Pronounced
      • (koh- lan -jee- OG -rah-fee)
      • (in-trah- VEE -nus)
    • Defined
      • Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium
  • 15. Cholangiography (Percutaneous Transhepatic)
    • Pronounced
      • (koh- lan -jee- OG -rah-fee)
      • ( per -kyoo- TAY -nee-us trans -heh- PAT -ik)
    • Defined
      • Examination of bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium
        • Also known as PTC or PTHC
  • 16.
    • Pronounced
      • (koh- lan -jee-oh- pan -kree-ah- TOG -rah-fee)
      • (en-doh- SKOP -ic RET -roh-grayd)
    • Defined
      • Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
    Cholangiopancreatography (Endoscopic Retrograde)
  • 17. Cholecystography (Oral)
    • Pronounced
      • (koh -lee-sis- TOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
  • 18.
    • Pronounced
      • ( sin -eh- ray -dee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera
  • 19.
    • Pronounced
      • (kom- PEW -ted AK -see-al toh- MOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Painless, noninvasive diagnostic X-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body
    Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)
  • 20. Computed Axial Tomography
  • 21. Voiding Cystourethrography
    • Pronounced
      • ( VOYD -ing sis -toh-yoo-ree- THROG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material
  • 22. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
    • Pronounced
      • ( DIJ -ih-tal sub- TRAK -shun an -jee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process
  • 23. Echocardiography
    • Pronounced
      • ( ek -oh- kar -dee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound
        • Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
  • 24. Fluoroscopy
    • Pronounced
      • ( floor -or- OSS -koh-pee)
    • Defined
      • Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope
  • 25.
    • Pronounced
      • ( his -ter-oh- sal -ping- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray assessment of uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures
  • 26. Lymphangiography
    • Pronounced
      • (lim- fan -jee- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray assessment of lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into lymph vessels in the hand or foot
  • 27. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Pronounced
      • (mag- NET -ik REZ -oh-nans IM -ij-ing)
    • Defined
      • Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
  • 28. Mammography
    • Pronounced
      • (mam- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Process of taking X-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt
  • 29. Myelography
    • Pronounced
      • (my-eh- LOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination
  • 30. Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET)
    • Pronounced
      • ( POZ -ih-tron ee- MISH -un toh- MOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Noninvasive diagnostic imaging method that demonstrates the biological function of the body before anatomical changes take place
        • Scan produces computerized radiographic images of the body structures when radioactive substances are administered to the patient
          • Substances are inhaled or injected
  • 31.
    • Pronounced
      • (pye-eh -LOG -rah-fee)
      • (in-trah- VEE -nus)
    • Defined
      • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
        • Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram
    Pyelography (Intravenous) (IVP)
  • 32. Radiation Therapy
    • Pronounced
      • (ray-dee- AY -shun THAIR -ah-pee)
    • Defined
      • Delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following:
        • Destruction of tumor cells
        • Reduction of tumor size
        • Decrease in pain
        • Relief of obstruction
        • To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells
  • 33. Radiation Therapy
    • Radiation therapy
      • Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless of whether they are cancerous
      • Goal is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimal, normal tissue damage
      • May be delivered by teletherapy (external)
      • May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)
  • 34. Radioactive Iodine Uptake
    • Pronounced
      • ( ray -dee-oh- AK -tiv EYE -oh-dine UP -tayk)
    • Defined
      • Examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning
        • Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given
  • 35.
    • Pronounced
      • ( SCAN -ing)
    • Defined
      • Scanning is the process of recording emission of radioactive waves, using a gamma camera (scanner)
        • After an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material into the particular part of the body being studied
    Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • 36.
    • Defined
      • Image of the area being studied is displayed by recording concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area
    Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • 37. Scanning
    • Bone
      • Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue
        • Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones
  • 38. Scanning
    • Brain
      • Nuclear scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
        • Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds
  • 39. Scanning
    • Liver
      • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound
        • Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver
  • 40. Scanning
    • Lung
      • Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
  • 41. Scanning
    • Spleen
      • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells
        • Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems
  • 42. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
    • Pronounced
      • (single FOH -ton ee- MISH -un
      • kom- PEW -ted toh- MOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Nuclear imaging procedure that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs
        • Tracking of radioactive material allows physician to see perfusion of blood to tissues and organs
  • 43. Small Bowel Follow-Through
    • Pronounced
      • (Small Bowel Follow-Through)
    • Defined
      • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system
        • X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe progression of barium through small intestines
  • 44. Tomography
    • Pronounced
      • (toh- MOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure
        • Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder
  • 45.
    • Pronounced
      • (ull-trah-son- OG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin
        • Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form
    Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)
  • 46. Ultrasonography
    • Abdominal ultrasound
      • Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters
  • 47. Ultrasonography
    • Pelvic ultrasound
      • Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
      • Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes
  • 48.
    • Renal ultrasound
      • Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys
    • Thyroid Echogram (ultrasound)
      • Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
  • 49. Venography
    • Pronounced
      • (vee- NOG -rah-fee)
    • Defined
      • Technique used to prepare an X-ray image of veins
      • Veins are injected with a radiopaque contrast medium
      • Phlebography
  • 50. X-rays
    • Pronounced
      • ( ECKS -rays)
    • Defined
      • Use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
  • 51. X-rays
    • Chest X-ray
      • Visualization of interior of chest
      • Provides diagnostic information about:
        • Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices
  • 52.
    • Chest X-ray views
      • Posteroanterior (PA)
        • X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front)
      • Lateral
        • X-rays pass through the person’s side
      • Oblique
        • X-rays are taken from different angles
      • Decubitus
        • X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid