Types of interactions

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Types of interactions

  1. 1. Types ofInteractions
  2. 2. Look at the seaweed forest below. Howmany fish do you see? How manyseaweed plants do you count? Why doyou think there are more members ofthe seaweed population than membersof the fish population?
  3. 3. Interactions with the Environment• Most living things producemore living things than willsurvive• A female frog may layhundreds of eggs, but thepopulation of frogs in apond will stay about thesame as it was the yearbefore—Why?• An organism interacts withbiotic and abiotic factorsthat control the size of its
  4. 4. Limiting Factors• Populations cannotgrow without stopping,because theenvironment contains alimited amount of food,water, living space, andother resources• A resource that is soscarce that it limits thesize of a population iscalled a limiting factor• Any single resource canbe a limiting factor to apopulation’s size
  5. 5. Carrying Capacity• Carrying capacity: largest population thatan environment can support• When a population is larger than its carryingcapacity, limiting factors cause individualsto die off or leave• As individuals die or leave, the populationdecreases• The population will return to a size that theenvironment can support
  6. 6. Interactions Between Organisms• Four main ways that species andindividuals affect each other:CompetitionPredators and preySymbiotic relationshipscoevolution
  7. 7. Competition• When 2 or moreindividuals orpopulations try to usethe same resource,such as water, shelter,space, or light, it iscalled competition• Can happen inpopulations or betweenpopulations• Some trees grow tall toreach light, whichreduces amt. availableto short trees
  8. 8. Predators and Prey• Predator Adaptations– To survive, predatorshave to be able tocatch prey, usingwide variety ofmethods and abilities– Goldenrod spiderambushes its prey byblending in with flowerand waiting for itsinsect meal to arrive
  9. 9. • Prey Adaptations– Prey have to keep frombeing eaten– Are able to run away, stayin groups, or camouflagethemselves– Some are poisonous– May advertise poison withbright colors– Many small fishes swim ingroups called schools– Other animals stay inherds, increasing thelikelihood of spotting apotential predator
  10. 10. Camouflage• One way to avoid being eaten is bybeing hard to see• Blend in with the background• May mimic twigs, leaves, stones, bark
  11. 11. Defensive Chemicals• Skunk and bombardierbeetle both spray predatorswith irritating chemicals• Bees, ants, and waspsinject a powerful acid intotheir attackersBird called the hooded pitohuicontains a deadly toxin—any predator that eats, ortries to eat, one of theseanimals will likely die
  12. 12. Warning Coloration• Predators will avoid anyanimal that has thecolors and patternsthey associate withpain, illness, orunpleasant experiences• Most common warningcolors arebright shades of red,yellow,orange, black, andwhite
  13. 13. Symbiosis• Symbiosis: a close, long termassociation between two or morespecies• Individuals in a symbioticrelationship can benefit from, beunaffected by, or be harmed by therelationship• Classified into 3 groups: mutualism,commensalism, and parasitism
  14. 14. Mutualism• Mutualism bothorganisms benefit• Example: coralsand algae. Coralprovide home foralgae, algaeproduce food forthe coral byphotosynthesis
  15. 15. Commensalism• One organism benefits and the other isunaffected• Example: relationship between sharks andsmaller fish called remoras. Remoras “hitch aride” on sharks and feed on scraps of food left bysharks. The remoras benefit and sharks areunaffected.
  16. 16. Parasitism• One organism benefitswhile the other isharmed• Organism that benefitsis called the parasite,organism that isharmed is called thehost• Female wasp lays eggson a tomato hornworm;eggs hatch, youngburrow into caterpillarbody, and actually eatthe caterpillar alive!Then adult wasps flyaway
  17. 17. Coevolution• When a long termchange takes placein two speciesbecause of theirclose interactionswith one another, thischange is calledcoevolution• Ant and acacia treeant protects tree andtree has specialstructures that makefood for ants
  18. 18. Coevolution and Flowers• Flowers have changed over millions ofyears to attract pollinators• Pollinators are attracted to color,odor, or nectar• Flowers pollinated by hummingbirdsmake nectar with the right amount ofsugar for the bird
  19. 19. • Some batschanged over timeto have long, thintongues and nosesto help themreach the nectarin flowers• They helppollinate as theytravel from flowerto flower

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