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# Scientific method & variables

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### Transcript

• 1. TheScientific MethodThe Steps to Success
• 2. The Scientific Method&#x2217; What is the scientific method? &#x2217; It is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us.
• 3. &#x2217; Is there only one &#x201C;scientific method&#x201D;? &#x2217; No, there are several versions of the scientific method. &#x2217; Some versions have more steps, while others may have only a few. &#x2217; However, they all begin with the identification of a problem or a question to be answered based on observations of the world around us.
• 4. &#x2217; They provide an organized method for conducting and analyzing an experiment.
• 5. &#x2217; What is a hypothesis? &#x2217; It is an educated guess based on observations and your knowledge of the topic. &#x2217; You state it as a possible answer to a question.
• 6. &#x2217; Stated in the &#x201C;If&#x2026;.., then&#x2026;.&#x201D; format&#x2217; Example: IF I water three plants with different sodas, THEN the plant that receives Sprite will grow the tallest.
• 7. &#x2217; What is data? &#x2217; It is information gathered during an experiment. &#x2217; It is organized into a data table and displayed visually as a graph.
• 8. Graphs&#x2217; BAR GRAPHS: can be used to show how something changes over time or to compare items. &#x2217; have an x-axis (horizontal) and a y-axis (vertical) &#x2217; the x-axis has time period or what is being measured &#x2217; the y-axis has numbers for the amount of stuff being measured. &#x2217; good when youre plotting data that spans many years (or days, weeks...), has really big changes from year to year (or day to day...), or when you are comparing things.
• 9. &#x2217; LINE GRAPHS: can be used to show how something changes over time&#x2217; x-axis has numbers for the time period&#x2217; y-axis has numbers for what is being measured.&#x2217; can be used when youre plotting data that has peaks (ups) and valleys (downs), or that was collected in a short time period.&#x2217; Used for two sets of numerical data (ex: time and temp)
• 10. Steps of the Scientific Method&#x2217; 1. Choose a problem: State the problem as a question.&#x2217; 2. Research your problem: Read, get advice, and make observations.&#x2217; 3. Develop a hypothesis: Make a prediction about what will happen.&#x2217; 4. Design an experiment: Plan how you will test your hypothesis.
• 11. &#x2217; 5. Test your hypothesis: Conduct the experiment and record the data.&#x2217; 6. Organize your data: Create a chart or graph of your data.&#x2217; 7. Draw conclusions: Analyze your data and summarize your findings.
• 12. Identifying VariablesIndependent VariablesDependent VariablesControlled Variables (Constants)
• 13. 3 Kinds of Variables&#x2217; Independent Variable &#x2013; something that is changed by the scientist &#x2217; What is tested &#x2217; What is manipulated (changed)
• 14. &#x2217; Dependent Variable &#x2013; something that might be affected by the change in the independent variable &#x2217; What is observed &#x2217; What is measured &#x2217; The data collected during the investigation &#x2217; &#x201C;the numbers&#x201D; &#x2217; Example: how tall the plant grew, how far the paper airplane flew
• 15. Example:
• 16. &#x2217; Controlled Variable &#x2013; a variable that is not changed &#x2217; Also called CONSTANTS &#x2217;Allow for a &#x201C;fair test&#x201D; &#x2217; Everything in the experiment except for the IV should be kept constant
• 17. Procedure&#x2217; Give a detailed explanation of how you will conduct the experiment to test your hypothesis&#x2217; Be clear about the variables (elements you change) versus your constants (elements that do not change)&#x2217; A control is the group that you use as a comparison to see if change has occurred. &#x2217; Example: In a medicine study, the group of people who don&#x2019;t get the medicine are the control group
• 18. &#x2217; Be very specific about how you will measure results to prove or disprove your hypothesis. You should include a regular timetable for measuring results or observing the projects (such as every hour, every day, every week)
• 19. Conclusion&#x2217; Conclusion: your results or findings based on data collected during the experiment&#x2217; Answer your problem/purpose statement&#x2217; What does it all add up to? What is the value of your project?&#x2217; What further study do you recommend given the results of your experiment? What would be the next question to ask?&#x2217; If you repeat this project, what would you change?
• 20. For Example:Students of different ages weregiven a jigsaw puzzle to puttogether. The scientist wanted tosee if the students&#x2019; ages affectedhow long it took to put the puzzletogether.
• 21. Identify the Variables in this Experiment:&#x2217; Independent Variable (IV): &#x2217; Ages of the students &#x2217; Different ages were tested by the scientist&#x2217; Dependent Variable (DV): &#x2217; The time it took to put the puzzle together &#x2217; The time was observed and measured by the scientist
• 22. What were the constants?&#x2217; (1) Same puzzle &#x2217; All of the participants were tested with the same puzzle. &#x2217; It would not have been a fair test if some had an easy 30 piece puzzle and some had a harder 500 piece puzzle.&#x2217; Other constants: (2) same location, (3) same stopwatch, (4) same person timing the experiment
• 23. Another Example:&#x2217; An investigation was done with an electromagnetic system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used. The number of paper clips the electromagnet could pick up was measured.
• 24. What are the Variables?&#x2217; IV: Sizes of nails &#x2217; These were changed by the scientist&#x2217;DV: Number of paper clips picked up &#x2217; The number of paper clips observed and counted (measured)&#x2217; Constants: Battery, wire, type of nail &#x2217; None of these items were changed
• 25. Let&#x2019;s Practice!&#x2217; If I use a heavier bowling ball, then the ball will travel faster down the lane.&#x2217; IV: weight of bowling ball&#x2217; DV: speed it traveled down lane
• 26. &#x2217; 2) If I use different brands of paper towels, then Bounty will absorb more water per minute than Sparkle or Quilted.&#x2217; IV: brand of paper towel&#x2217; DV: amount of water absorbed per minute
• 27. &#x2217; 3) If I put 3 spider plants in different locations, then the plant in the sunlight will grow taller in a one-week period than the plants in the closet and basement.&#x2217; IV: location of the plants&#x2217; DV: height of plants