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Meiosis Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Meiosis Where are genes located and how do they pass information? Understanding reproduction is the first step to finding answers.
  • 2. Meiosis Two kinds of reproduction: asexual and sexual. The name for the way cells divide in asexual reproduction is mitosis.Asexual = not sexual = example: skin cell
  • 3. Asexual Reproduction In asexual reproduction, only one parent cell is needed. This type of cell reproduction is known as mitosis. Most of the cells in your body reproduce this way.
  • 4. Sexual Reproduction In sexual reproduction, two parent cells join together to form offspring that are different from both parents.
  • 5.  Parent cells are called sex cells. Sex cells are different from regular body cells because they only have 23 chromosomes, which is half of our other body cells.
  • 6. Meiosis Sex cells are made during a process called meiosis. Meiosis is a copying process that produces cells with half the usual number of chromosomes.
  • 7. Genes and ChromosomesWalter Sutton was a graduate student who studied grasshopper sperm and egg cells. Walter Sutton’s important observation was that egg and sperm cells were different, but they did have something in common: Their chromosomes were located inside a nucleus.
  • 8.  Sutton proposed that genes are located on chromosomes!
  • 9. The Steps of Meiosis Chromosomes are copies once, and then the nucleus divides twice. The resulting sperm and eggs have half the number of chromosomes of a normal body cell.
  • 10.  Sex chromosomes carry genes that determine sex  Female chromosomes XX  Male chromosomes XY
  • 11. Sex Linked Disorders Because males have only one X chromosome, what is more likely to happen to them?  More likely to have a sex-linked disorder
  • 12.  Name two sex-linked disorders: hemophilia, color blindness
  • 13. Genetic Counseling & Selective Breeding To trace a trait through generations of a family, you can use a pedigree
  • 14.  A genetic counselor can often predict if a person is a carrier of hereditary diseases. People with cystic fibrosis have two recessive alleles.
  • 15.  When organisms with desirable characteristics are mated by humans, it is called selective breeding. Examples of selective breeding: race horse, show dogs, roses