Theories Most scientists agree that there is enough evidence to support the theory that humans, apes, and monkeys share a common ancestor Many fossils of organisms show traits of both humans and apes
Primates Primates: a group of mammals that includes humans, apes, monkeys, and lemurs Have opposable thumbs (5 flexible fingers) Have binocular vision (eyes are located on front of head and provide 3-D vision
First primates Ancestors of primates were mouse-like mammals that were active at night, lived in trees, and ate insects
First primates did not exist until dinosaurs died out Chimpanzee is the closest living relative of humans This doesn’t mean that humans descended from chimps Means that humans and chimps had a common ancestor
Hominids Humans are in a family separate from other primates Hominids: includes only humans and their human-like ancestors Main characteristic that separates hominids from other primates is bipedalism walking up right on two feet
Hominids Through Time Scientists have named at least 18 types of hominids Earliest hominids Ability to walk upright, smaller teeth, flatter faces, larger brains that earlier primates Oldest hominid fossils have been found in Africa
Australopithecines Members of this group were similar to apes but different in several ways Some may have used stone tools Climbed trees, but walked on two legs
Variety of Early Hominids Global Hominids About 2.3 million years ago, new group of hominids appeared Larger and more complex brains, rounder skulls, and flatter faces that earlier hominids Showed advanced tool-making abilities Walked upright
Members of group Homo, which includes modern humans (Homo Sapiens) Early member of this group was Homo hablis, which lived 2 million year ago Homo erectus appeared a million years later and grew as tall as modern humans
Recent Hominids As recently as 30,000 years ago, two types of hominids may have lived in the same areas at the same time Both had largest brains of any hominid More advanced tools, clothing, and art Modern humans may have descended from one of these two types of hominids
Neanderthals Lived in Europe and western Asia Hunted large animals, made fires, and wore clothing Disappeared 30,000 years ago and no one knows what caused their extinction
Early and Modern Humans Modern humans are classified as Homo sapiens Earliest group existed in Africa Of all known hominids, only Homo sapiens exist Seem to be the first to create art
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