Ecological succession & cycles of matter

2,059 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,059
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
381
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ecological succession & cycles of matter

  1. 1. Ecological Succession &Ecological Succession &Cycles of MatterCycles of Matter
  2. 2. ► Regrowth of a ForestRegrowth of a Forest Succession: replacement of one type ofSuccession: replacement of one type ofcommunitycommunity by another at a single place overby another at a single place overa period of timea period of time
  3. 3.  Example: burned areas of YellowstoneExample: burned areas of YellowstoneNational Park started to regrow small,National Park started to regrow small,green plants by the nextgreen plants by the next yearyear
  4. 4. ► Primary SuccessionPrimary Succession Small organisms start toSmall organisms start togrow in areas wheregrow in areas whereother organisms had notother organisms had notpreviouslypreviously livedlived No soil in this area, justNo soil in this area, justbare rockbare rock Over long period of time,Over long period of time,organisms live and dieorganisms live and dieon rock, and rock ison rock, and rock isslowly transformed intoslowly transformed intosoilsoil
  5. 5.  FirstFirst organisms to live in an area are calledorganisms to live in an area are called pioneerpioneerspeciesspecies Example: slowly retreating glacier exposes new rockExample: slowly retreating glacier exposes new rockover many years there is enough soil for mosses toover many years there is enough soil for mosses togrowgrow soil deepens and mosses are replaced bysoil deepens and mosses are replaced bygrassesgrasses and wildflowersand wildflowers
  6. 6. ►Secondary SuccessionSecondary Succession Sometimes, existing community is destroyed bySometimes, existing community is destroyed bynatural disastersnatural disasters, such as fire or flood, such as fire or flood If soil is left intact, the original community mayIf soil is left intact, the original community mayregrow through a series of stages calledregrow through a series of stages calledsecondarysecondary successionsuccession Example: first year after farmer stops growingExample: first year after farmer stops growingcrops, weeds start to growcrops, weeds start to grow by second year,by second year,new weed appearnew weed appear forests may form overforests may form overmany yearsmany years
  7. 7. ►Mature Communities and BiodiversityMature Communities and Biodiversity In early stages ofIn early stages of successionsuccession, only few, only fewspecies grow in an areaspecies grow in an area These species grow quickly and make manyThese species grow quickly and make manyseedsseeds that scatter easilythat scatter easily As community matures, it many beAs community matures, it many bedominated by well-adapted,dominated by well-adapted, slow-growingslow-growingclimax speciesclimax species Variety of species that are present in anVariety of species that are present in anarea is referred to as biodiversityarea is referred to as biodiversity
  8. 8.  MatureMaturecommunity maycommunity maynot always be anot always be aforest; it simplyforest; it simplyhas organismshas organismsthat are wellthat are welladapted to liveadapted to livetogether in thetogether in thesame area oversame area overtimetime
  9. 9. Cycles of MatterCycles of Matter►Carbon CycleCarbon Cycle Exchange ofExchange of carboncarbon between the environmentbetween the environmentand living thingsand living things PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis is the basis of carbon cycleis the basis of carbon cycle Carbon returns to the environment when sugarCarbon returns to the environment when sugarmolecules are broken down to release energy—molecules are broken down to release energy—process is calledprocess is called respirationrespiration Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide and water are released asand water are released asbyproducts of respirationbyproducts of respiration
  10. 10. ► Nitrogen CycleNitrogen Cycle OrganismsOrganismsneed nitrogenneed nitrogento buildto buildproteins andproteins andDNA for newDNA for newcellscells AboutAbout 78%78% ofofEarth’sEarth’satmosphere isatmosphere isnitrogen gasnitrogen gas
  11. 11.  Bacteria inBacteria in soilsoil changechangenitrogen gas into formsnitrogen gas into formsthat plants can use—that plants can use—process called nitrogenprocess called nitrogenfixationfixation When organisms dies,When organisms dies,decomposersdecomposers breakbreakdown remains anddown remains andrelease form of nitrogenrelease form of nitrogeninto soil that plants caninto soil that plants canuseuse Certain types of bacteriaCertain types of bacteriain soil convert nitrogenin soil convert nitrogeninto ainto a gasgas that returns tothat returns toatmosphereatmosphere
  12. 12. ►Water CycleWater Cycle Movement of water between theMovement of water between the oceansoceans,,atmosphere,atmosphere, landland, and living things, and living things During evaporation, sun’s heat causes waterDuring evaporation, sun’s heat causes waterto change from liquid toto change from liquid to vaporvapor During condensation, water vapor cools andDuring condensation, water vapor cools andreturns toreturns to liquidliquid statestate Water that falls to oceans and land isWater that falls to oceans and land isprecipitationprecipitation
  13. 13.  Groundwater isGroundwater isprecipitation thatprecipitation thatseeps into the groundseeps into the groundand slowly flows backand slowly flows backinto soil, streams,into soil, streams,rivers, and oceansrivers, and oceans Plants release a largePlants release a largeamount of wateramount of watervaporvapor transpirationtranspiration
  14. 14. Let’s Review!Let’s Review!What is the precipitation that is storedWhat is the precipitation that is storedbetween or within rocks?between or within rocks?Ground waterGround waterWhat is the burning of a substance called?What is the burning of a substance called?(Think of the carbon cycle picture with the(Think of the carbon cycle picture with thefactories…)factories…)CombustionCombustion
  15. 15. What is the gradual development of aWhat is the gradual development of acommunity over time called?community over time called?SuccessionSuccessionWhat process is the basis of the carbonWhat process is the basis of the carboncycle?cycle?PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis

×