Characteristics of    Mammals
The First Mammals• 280 million years ago, reptiles called  “therapsids” existed, which had  characteristics of both reptil...
Common Characteristics• Mammals share 7  characteristics:  – 1) Making Milk     • All mammals have       mammary glands, w...
– (2) Breathing Air   • Mammals use     their lungs to get     oxygen from the     air   • Mammals have a     muscle to he...
– (3) Endothermic   • As oxygen helps     break down a     mammal’s food,     energy is released   • This energy keeps    ...
– (4) Hair   • Mammals stay     warm by having     hair   • Thick coats are     called fur   • Most mammals     have a lay...
– (5) Specialized Teeth   • Mammals have teeth     with different shapes     and sizes for     different jobs   • Meat-eat...
– (6) Sexual  Reproduction   • Most mammals     give birth to live     young   • Newborn     mammals stay     with at leas...
– (7) Large Brains   • Mammal’s brain is     much larger than that     of most other animals     of the same size   • Allo...
Placental Mammals• Placental mammal: embryo develops  inside the mother’s body in an organ  called a uterus  – The placent...
• Living placental mammals  are divided into 11 main  groups that contain 18  orders:   – (1) anteaters,     armadillos, &...
• Insectivores               • Rodents  – Eat insects                – More than one-third of  – Most are small with      ...
• Rabbits, Hares, and         • Flying Mammals  Pikas                         – Bats are the only  – Have sharp, gnawing  ...
• Carnivores                  • Trunk-Nosed  – Have large canine           Mammals    teeth and special           – Elepha...
• Hoofed Mammals              • Cetaceans  – A hoof is a thick, hard     – All cetaceans live in    pad that covers a     ...
• Manatees and             • Primates  Dugongs                    – Have 5 fingers on  – Smallest group of          each h...
• Monotremes  – Mammals that lay    eggs  – Examples: duck-billed    platypus, echidna• Marsupials  – Mammals that carry  ...
Characteristics of mammals
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Characteristics of mammals

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Characteristics of mammals

  1. 1. Characteristics of Mammals
  2. 2. The First Mammals• 280 million years ago, reptiles called “therapsids” existed, which had characteristics of both reptiles and mammals• True mammals appeared soon after• They were about the size of mice, were warm blooded, and were able to hunt at night because they could maintain their body temperature
  3. 3. Common Characteristics• Mammals share 7 characteristics: – 1) Making Milk • All mammals have mammary glands, which are structures that make milk • Only mature females produce milk for their young • All milk is made of sugars, water, proteins, and fats
  4. 4. – (2) Breathing Air • Mammals use their lungs to get oxygen from the air • Mammals have a muscle to help them get air called a diaphragm it lies at the bottom of the rib cage
  5. 5. – (3) Endothermic • As oxygen helps break down a mammal’s food, energy is released • This energy keeps a mammal warm • Like birds, mammals are endotherms • Helps them survive in cold areas
  6. 6. – (4) Hair • Mammals stay warm by having hair • Thick coats are called fur • Most mammals have a layer of fat under their skin to keep them warm • This fat traps heat in the body
  7. 7. – (5) Specialized Teeth • Mammals have teeth with different shapes and sizes for different jobs • Meat-eating mammals have large canines to help eat prey • Plant-eating mammals have larger incisors and molars to help them bite and grind plants
  8. 8. – (6) Sexual Reproduction • Most mammals give birth to live young • Newborn mammals stay with at least one parent until they are grown
  9. 9. – (7) Large Brains • Mammal’s brain is much larger than that of most other animals of the same size • Allows mammals to learn and think quickly • Also allows mammals to respond quickly to events around them • Mammal uses its senses to find out about the world
  10. 10. Placental Mammals• Placental mammal: embryo develops inside the mother’s body in an organ called a uterus – The placenta attaches the embryo to the uterus – Placenta carries food and oxygen from the mother’s blood to the embryo and carries wastes away from the embryo – The time that the embryo develops is called the gestation period
  11. 11. • Living placental mammals are divided into 11 main groups that contain 18 orders: – (1) anteaters, armadillos, & sloths • These mammals are called “toothless mammals” but only anteaters have no teeth • Most catch insects with long, sticky tongues
  12. 12. • Insectivores • Rodents – Eat insects – More than one-third of – Most are small with mammal species are long pointed noses rodents – Include moles, shrews, – Include squirrels, and hedgehogs mice, porcupines
  13. 13. • Rabbits, Hares, and • Flying Mammals Pikas – Bats are the only – Have sharp, gnawing mammals that fly teeth – Most use echoes to – Have 2 sets of incisors find their food and they in their upper jaw way – Shorter tails than rodents
  14. 14. • Carnivores • Trunk-Nosed – Have large canine Mammals teeth and special – Elephants are the only molar teeth for slicing living mammals with a meat trunk – Many only eat meat – A trunk is a – Includes bears, cats, combination of an dogs, otters, hyenas upper lip and nose
  15. 15. • Hoofed Mammals • Cetaceans – A hoof is a thick, hard – All cetaceans live in pad that covers a the water mammal’s toe – Unlike fish, they have – Most hoofed mammals lungs and nurse their are fast runners young – Includes giraffes, – Includes whales, camels, pigs dolphins, and porpoises
  16. 16. • Manatees and • Primates Dugongs – Have 5 fingers on – Smallest group of each hand and 5 toes mammals that live in on each foot the water – Considered highly – Used their front intelligent animals flippers and tail to – Includes monkeys, swim slowly apes, and humans
  17. 17. • Monotremes – Mammals that lay eggs – Examples: duck-billed platypus, echidna• Marsupials – Mammals that carry their young in a pouch – Several species of marsupials living today – Examples: koalas, opposum, kangaroo

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