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Animal Behavior       And      Social  relationships
Kinds of Behavior • How do animals know    when a situation is dangerous? How do theyknow where to find food?  • Sometimes...
Innate Behavior• Innate behavior: behavior that  doesn’t depend on learning or  experience• Inherited through genes• Examp...
• The male bowerbird inherits thetendency to collect colorful objects for   its nest. These colorful additions attract the...
Learned Behavior• Innate behaviors can be modified• Animals can use learning to change a  behavior• Learned behavior: beha...
Survival Behavior • Finding FoodMany animals hunt for their food,   This chimpanzee uses tools to get   like this owl hunt...
– Animals that eat  other animals are  known as predators– The animal being  eaten is the prey– Example A frog  eats inse...
• Marking Territory  – Members of the same species must compete    for food and mates  – Some animals claim territories to...
• Defensive Action  – Defensive behavior allows animals to protect    resources, including territories, from other    anim...
Pet dogs       When a predator is near,sometimes growl     a mother killdeer may when a person        pretend to have aapp...
• Courtship  – Animals need to find mates to reproduce  – Animals have special behaviors that help them    find a mate; th...
• Parenting  – Some animals, like    caterpillars, start life being    able to take care of    themselves  – Many young de...
Seasonal Behavior• Migration  – Many animals avoid    cold weather by    traveling to warmer    places  – For short trips,...
Each winter,     monarchbutterflies migrate    from NorthAmerica to central Mexico. Therecan be as many as      4 million ...
• Slowing Down  – Some animals deal with    food and water shortages    by hibernating  – Hibernation: period of    inacti...
• A Biological Clock  – Animals need to keep track of time so that    they know when to store food and when to    migrate ...
Social Relationships• Social behavior: the interaction among  animals of the same species; animals  depend on communicatio...
– Animals also communicate to find food, to  warn others of danger, to identify family  members, to frighten predators, an...
• Ways to Communicate  – Sound    • Sound is a signal that      can reach many      animals over a large      area    • El...
– Touch   • Chimpanzees     often groom     each other   • This activity is an     important way for     primates to     c...
– Chemicals   • Pheromones: chemicals that     animals use to communicate   • Ants and other insects     secrete a variety...
– Sight   • When we smile at a friend, we are sending a     visual message with body language   • Bees use body language t...
Living Together• The Benefits of Living in  Groups    – Safer than living alone    – One animal can warn many      others ...
• The Downside of Living  in Groups  – Must compete with each    other for food and mates  – An area that has enough    fo...
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Animal behavior and social relationships

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Transcript of "Animal behavior and social relationships"

  1. 1. Animal Behavior And Social relationships
  2. 2. Kinds of Behavior • How do animals know when a situation is dangerous? How do theyknow where to find food? • Sometimes, animalsinstinctively know how tobehave, but sometimes they
  3. 3. Innate Behavior• Innate behavior: behavior that doesn’t depend on learning or experience• Inherited through genes• Examples: puppies inherit the tendency to chew, bees inherit the tendency to fly – Other innate behaviors develop months or years after birth walking is innate humans, but we don’t do it for at least a year after birth
  4. 4. • The male bowerbird inherits thetendency to collect colorful objects for its nest. These colorful additions attract the female bowerbird to be his mate!
  5. 5. Learned Behavior• Innate behaviors can be modified• Animals can use learning to change a behavior• Learned behavior: behavior that has been learned from experience or from observing other animals• Humans inherit the tendency to speak, but the language we use is not inherited• All animals can learn
  6. 6. Survival Behavior • Finding FoodMany animals hunt for their food, This chimpanzee uses tools to get like this owl hunting mice to the insect for food
  7. 7. – Animals that eat other animals are known as predators– The animal being eaten is the prey– Example A frog eats insects, so the frog is a predator. But a frog may be eaten by a snake. In this case, the frog is the prey.
  8. 8. • Marking Territory – Members of the same species must compete for food and mates – Some animals claim territories to save energy by avoiding this competition – Territory an area that is occupied by one animal or a group of animals that do not allow other members of the same species to enter – Animals use their territories for mating, raising young, and finding food
  9. 9. • Defensive Action – Defensive behavior allows animals to protect resources, including territories, from other animals – Animals defend food, mates, and offspring – Also helps animals protect themselves from predators, such as making themselves hard to see • Example: This rabbit “freezes” so that its color blends into the background
  10. 10. Pet dogs When a predator is near,sometimes growl a mother killdeer may when a person pretend to have aapproaches while broken wing and move its eating away from her young as a distraction
  11. 11. • Courtship – Animals need to find mates to reproduce – Animals have special behaviors that help them find a mate; these behaviors are referred to as “courtship” – Example: two cranes perform a courtship display dance
  12. 12. • Parenting – Some animals, like caterpillars, start life being able to take care of themselves – Many young depend on their parents for survival – Some adult birds bring food to their young because they cannot feed themselves – Other animals, like the killer whale, spend years teaching their young how to hunt for food
  13. 13. Seasonal Behavior• Migration – Many animals avoid cold weather by traveling to warmer places – For short trips, animals use landmarks to find their way (landmarks are fixed, like mountain ranges, rivers, and coast lines)
  14. 14. Each winter, monarchbutterflies migrate from NorthAmerica to central Mexico. Therecan be as many as 4 million butterflies per acre!
  15. 15. • Slowing Down – Some animals deal with food and water shortages by hibernating – Hibernation: period of inactivity and decreased body temperature that some animals experience in winter – Winter is not the only time for hibernation many desert squirrels and mice experience a similar internal slowdown in the hottest parts of summer, when food and water are scarce. • This is called “estivation”
  16. 16. • A Biological Clock – Animals need to keep track of time so that they know when to store food and when to migrate – The internal control of an animal’s natural cycles is called a biological clock – Animals use clues such as the length of the day and the temperature – Circadian rhythms: daily cycles, such as an animal waking up and getting sleepy at about the same time each day and night
  17. 17. Social Relationships• Social behavior: the interaction among animals of the same species; animals depend on communication for their social interactions
  18. 18. – Animals also communicate to find food, to warn others of danger, to identify family members, to frighten predators, and to find mates
  19. 19. • Ways to Communicate – Sound • Sound is a signal that can reach many animals over a large area • Elephants use low frequency rumbles to communicate with other elephants that are kilometers away
  20. 20. – Touch • Chimpanzees often groom each other • This activity is an important way for primates to communicate, calm and comfort each other, and communicate friendship or support
  21. 21. – Chemicals • Pheromones: chemicals that animals use to communicate • Ants and other insects secrete a variety of pheromones alarm chemicals warn other ants of danger and recognition chemicals announce which colony an ant is from to both friends and enemies • Many animals use pheromones to find a mate
  22. 22. – Sight • When we smile at a friend, we are sending a visual message with body language • Bees use body language to spread news about food (the “waggle dance”) • An animal that wants to scare another animal may ruffle feathers or show its teeth
  23. 23. Living Together• The Benefits of Living in Groups – Safer than living alone – One animal can warn many others of danger – Helps animals find food – Predators that hunt in groups can kill larger preyThe ground squirrel whistles a loud alarm if there’s danger
  24. 24. • The Downside of Living in Groups – Must compete with each other for food and mates – An area that has enough food for one animal may not have enough food for a group of animals – In these cases, groups must move around in search of food – Animals in groups attract predators – Living as a group can also help diseases spread
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