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Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
Amphibians and reptiles
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Amphibians and reptiles

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  1. Amphibians• Amphibians are animals that can live in water and have lungs and legs• Scientists think that amphibians evolved from ancestors of lungfish-like fishes• Most of today’s amphibians are frogs or salamanders
  2. Characteristics of Amphibians• “Amphibian” means “double life” most live part of lives on land and part of lives in water• Amphibian eggs don’t have a shell to prevent water loss, so the embryos must develop in a wet environment• Are ectotherms body temp. depends on temp. of environment (cold blooded)
  3. • Thin Skin – Skin is so thin that amphibians absorb water instead of drinking it – Can easily become dehydrated – Can breathe with lungs, but many absorb oxygen through their skin, which is full of blood vessels – May be bright colors; often to warn predator of poison
  4. • Leading a Double Life – Don’t just get bigger as they grow, they change form – After hatching, frog embryo becomes tadpole and must live in water • Gets oxygen through gills and uses tail to swim • Later, loses gills and develops limbs to live on land – Change from immature form to adult form is called metamorphosis
  5. Kinds of Amphibians(1) Caecilians -look like earthworms or snakes, but have amphibian skin -do not have legs and have bony scales in their skin(2) Salamanders -do not develop as tadpoles -most lose gills and develop lungs -a few species keep gills and live in water for life
  6. (3) Frogs and Toads -90% of amphibians are frogs or toads -toads are a type of frogs (but spend less time in the water)(4) Singing Frogs -sing to communicate messages that help in attracting a mate or marking territories -most frogs that sing are males
  7. • Amphibians as Ecological Indicators – Unhealthy amphibians can be an early sign of changes in an ecosystem – Very sensitive to changes – Thin skin absorbs any chemicals in the water or air – Lungs take in chemicals from the air – Climate change also affects them because they are ectotherms
  8. • Living on Land – 35 million years Reptiles after they first moved on land, some amphibians began to change thick, dry skin, legs were stronger, eggs did not dry out – They had become reptiles – Many reptiles are now extinct most famous are dinosaurs
  9. • Characteristics of Reptiles – (1) Thick skin • Forms a watertight layer that keeps cells from losing water by evaporation • Cannot breathe through their skin • Depend only on lungs for oxygen (2) Body Temperature • Nearly all are ectotherms (cold blooded) • Most live in mild climates (3) The Amazing Amniotic Egg • Egg holds fluid that protects the embryo • Have a shell that keeps it from drying out
  10. • Reptile Reproduction – Usually reproduce by internal fertilization – Reptiles do not go through metamorphosis – Female lays eggs when they hatch, the young look like small adults
  11. • Kinds of Reptiles – Turtles and Tortoises • Tortoises live on land, turtles in the water • Unique because of their shells, which is used for protection Crocodiles and Alligators -spend most of their time in the water -eyes and nostrils are on top of their flat heads -crocodiles have a narrow head and pointed snout, and alligator has a broad head and rounded snout
  12. – Snakes and Lizards • Most common reptiles • Snakes can smell prey -Tuataras -live on only a few islands off the coast of New Zealand -do not have visible ear openings on outside of body -most active when temp. is low

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