Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires

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Common elements of the Turkic near-eastern empires, common problems and distinctive elements.

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Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal: Islamic Gunpowder Turkic Empires

  1. 1. Islamic Gunpowder Empires Ottoman Safavid Mughal
  2. 2. Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
  3. 3. Islamic Gunpowder Empires? <ul><li>These are the first post-Mongol Islamic empires to use gunpowder weapons extensively. </li></ul><ul><li>Most militaries shifting to gunpowder at this point: Chinese invented it, Europe got it from Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Certainly Islamic, and certainly empires. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Modern </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Elements <ul><li>Nomadic Turkish conquerers </li></ul><ul><li>Sufi influence: piety a sign of legitimacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic rule </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial family politics: deadly competition </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of women within Imperial family </li></ul><ul><li>Use of jizya tax on dhimmi (protected non-Muslim) populations </li></ul><ul><li>Lively Artistic and Creative Culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Problems <ul><li>Economic peripheralization </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of warfare and bureaucracies </li></ul><ul><li>Weakly Meritocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to maintain technological development in changing age </li></ul><ul><li>Religious tension: conservativism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Insularity and resistance to technology including printing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
  7. 7. Ottoman Empire, 1289-1921 <ul><li>Religion: Sunni, millet system </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mehmed II &quot;The Conquerer&quot; (r. 1451-1481) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Süleyman the Magnificent (or &quot;the Lawgiver&quot;) (r. 1520-1566) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: approx 25 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Military: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ghazi &quot;sword of God&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Janissaries - devshirme slaves in the army </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Safavid Empire, 1501-1722 <ul><li>Religion: Twelver Shiism, Sufi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Record on Tolerance for Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, Sunni Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah Ismail (r. 1501-1524) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah Abbas &quot;the Great&quot; (r. 1588-1629) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: approx. 6 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Military: qizilbash (&quot;red heads&quot;) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mughal Empire, 1526-18th c. <ul><li>Religion: Sunni minority, Divine Faith, Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babur &quot;the Tiger&quot; (r. to 1530) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akbar (r. 1556-1605) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: 100-200 Million (growing) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Central State </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal

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