Korea and Imperialism

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The Japanese takeover of Korea in the 19th and 20th centuries in the context of the New Imperialism of the period

The Japanese takeover of Korea in the 19th and 20th centuries in the context of the New Imperialism of the period

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  • 1. Korea andNew Imperialism
  • 2. New Imperialism?• Process – Interaction - Distortion - Influence - Colonization• Justification – Social Darwinism (race, eugenics) – White Mans Burden – New Nationalism (Romanticism + Irrationalism)• Migration: Conquest v. Settler
  • 3. New Imperialism• Industrialization –Military advantage –Need for Raw Materials, Markets• International Law –Treaties Without Participation (e.g. Berlin Conference) –Exclusion
  • 4. Unequal Treaties• Starts with 1842 Treaty of Nanjing• Extraterritoriality• Trade Concessions and Treaty Ports• "Most Favored Nation" clauses• Indemnity Payments
  • 5. Japan-Korea Engagement• 1872: Seikanron• 1876: Kangwha Treaty –1881: US-Korea Friendship Treaty• 1885: Li-Ito Agreement• 1894: Tonghak Uprising
  • 6. Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895
  • 7. Increasing Control• 1895: –Treaty of Shimonoseki • Korea, Taiwan, Liaotung Peninsula –Assassination of Queen Min• 1896: Triple Intervention• 1900: Boxer Expedition• 1902: Anglo-Japanese Alliance
  • 8. Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
  • 9. Protectorate• 1905 – Treaty of Portsmouth – Taft-Katsura Agreement – Treaty of Protectorate• 1907 – Korean Mission to the Hague – Emperor Kojong Abdicates – Korean Army Disbanded• 1909: Ito Hirobumi Assassinated• 1910: Annexation
  • 10. Japanese Colonial Territories and Spheres of Influence, 1895-1912Taiwan: 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki 1898: Fujien region Commercial TreatyKorea: 1904: First Japan-Korea Treaty 1905: Second Japan-Korea Treaty (Protectorate) 1907: Third Japan-Korea Treaty (Internal Administration and Military Disbandment) 1910: Korean Unification AgreementLiaodong Peninsula 1905: Portsmouth Treaty 1905: Sino-Japanese Portsmouth Treaty Confirmation AgreementManchuria 1907: First Japan-Russia Treaty 1912: Third Japan-Russia
  • 11. Colonial Korea• 1910s: Aggressive Suppression• 1919: Kojong Dies; March 1st Movement• 1920s: "Cultural Policy" and development• 1930s: Cultural Unity Movement; China Colonization• 1940s: Wartime Labor Exploitation
  • 12. Influence InChina BeforeWWIPink: Japan Dark Pink: Japanese colonial territoryGreen: RussiaPink/Green: OriginallyRussian, becomesJapaneseBlue: GermanyOrange: Great BritainPurple: France Dark Purple: French Colonial TerritoryDark dots indicate Open
  • 13. Colonial and Military StrengthComparisons, 1911Square indicates Territorycontrolled in 10K squarekilometer units: red squareis home country; tan squareis colonial territoryBlue line indicatespopulation of home countryin millionsGreen Bar indicates Importsand Blue Bar indicatesExports, in ¥10M unitsCircle indicates MilitaryNaval Tonnage in 10K tonunits.EnglandRussiaFranceChinaAmerica
  • 14. Sources• Most maps and charts from Yamakawa Nihonshi Sogo Zuroku [Japanese History Maps and Charts Omnibus], 1985• Tonghak map from Korea Old and New: A History.• All translations by Jonathan Dresner• Ito Hirobumi and An Chung-gun images public domain