Early Japanese Food History


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Early Japanese Food History

  1. 1. Early Japanese Food History<br />Patterns and Change<br />
  2. 2. Japan<br />
  3. 3. Jōmon (13,000 bce to 900 bce)<br />Seasonal Migrations<br />Winter: Hunting deer, boar, monkey, rabbit<br />Spring: Coastal Shellfish<br />Summer: Fishing, Foraging<br />Autumn: Mountain Foraging, nuts, berries<br />Later Jōmon: Horticulture<br />Swidden (Slash & Burn)<br />Melons, Burdock, Beans, Barley, Millet<br />Pottery<br />
  4. 4. Jomon Pottery<br />
  5. 5. Yayoi (900 bce-250 ce)<br />Early Agriculture<br />Japonica Rice, cast seeds, dependent on rain<br />5 Grains: Rice, Barley, Millet, Wheat, Buckwheat. Also Soybeans.<br />Swidden, Fishing, Hunting continue<br />Pigs Domesticated. Octopus traps.<br />Later: <br />Rice paddy irrigation and seedling transplant<br />imported iron tools<br />Problems: Spring Hungers and Warfare<br />
  6. 6. Yayoi Pottery and Tools<br />
  7. 7. Tomb Culture (3rd - 6th century)<br />Yayoi patterns continue<br />Stoneware<br />Sake fermentation<br />Chopsticks<br />Population Growth<br />Political Consolidation<br />
  8. 8. Tomb-era Pottery and Kamado<br />
  9. 9. Nagoya: Atsuta ShrineSake Barrels & Shinto Priest<br />
  10. 10. Ritsuryo Era Tribute<br />
  11. 11. Classical Japan: 7th c. to 12th c.<br />Population Stagnates, even declines<br />Epidemic Disease, Cooling, Deforestation and Overproduction<br />Taxes based on Rice<br />Irrigation sporadic, difficult to maintain<br />Iron in short supply<br />Typical Diet: "brown rice, wheat, barley, salt, seaweed, bean paste [miso], vinegar, melons ... lots of rice wine. ... mushrooms, chestnuts, and local fish and game." (Farris 2009, 48)<br />
  12. 12. Classical Japan, cont.<br />Agriculture: <br />more oxen, plant-based fertilizers, double-cropping dry fields<br />oils (hemp, sesame, bean)<br />Peasant classes lived on edge of starvation, continued swidden, hunting, foraging<br />Elites lived on tax and tribute from estates<br />"Their diet was surprisingly poor, mostly polished rice, various vegetables, fish and shellfish, and lots of rice wine. ... susceptible to all sorts of chronic diseases." (Farris 2009, 73)<br />
  13. 13. 18c Watanabe ShikoFarmer's Ox<br />
  14. 14. Medieval Japan (13th to 16th c.)<br />Population growing: epidemics, famines slow<br />Agriculture:<br />Iron Tools available again, rising use of oxen<br />manure as fertilizer, water wheel irrigation<br />"Island Dry Fields", double-cropping of rice begins<br />Champa Rice<br />"more side dishes such as salted fish and noodles" (Farris 2009, 128)<br />
  15. 15. 17c Screen: Water Wheel<br />
  16. 16. Medieval Screen: Rice Planting<br />
  17. 17. New Foods<br />Zen Buddhist Monk Eisai brings Tea from China. Buddhists also introduce sweet bean paste, steamed buns, and Tofu<br />Foreign Influences: Teppan yaki, Tempura, Castela cake, pepper.<br />Soy sauce, ginger, wasabi become widespread<br />Miso, soy and rice form complete protein<br />
  18. 18. Early Modern Japan (17th to 19th c.)<br />Agricultural Boom: Peace Dividend<br />Widespread double-cropping, seed selection<br />Fertilization: "Night Soil", seedcake, fish<br />Columbian Exchange: Sweet Potatoes, green beans, maize, red peppers, pumpkins, watermelon, spinach, chili peppers, peanuts<br />Spread of beriberi as polished rice became more common<br />Hunting declined, except wildfowl; domesticated pig, chicken popular<br />Lunch<br />
  19. 19. Early Modern Agriculture<br />
  20. 20. Everyday Food<br />"What we think of as the traditional Japanese diet of steamed rice accompanied by soup, one or more side dishes, and pickles, developed slowly... Even samurai families often had a daily diet of coarse grains or rice mixed with other grains with a side dish of fish or something extra for the master, but only soup, pickles and possibly boiled vegetables for the rest of the family and the servants." (Hanley 1997, 86)<br />
  21. 21. Special Occasions<br />"salted salmon, tuna, bean curd, dried bonito, squid, herring roe, and dried herring - all purchased at a nearby town - eggs, dried nameko (an edible fungus), sea bream, fried bean curd, aya (sweetfish), horseradish, and the list goes on. ... <br />"Sugar was a luxury item [but] even people in the northern, poorer sections of the country could buy it and did." (Hanley 1997, 87)<br />
  22. 22. Early Modern Food<br />"in Japan, one-pot meals had one or more grains - usually including rice - as their base, and other foods, particularly vegetables, were added appropriately during the cooking process." (Hanley 1997, 79)<br />Shinano: 20 different rice strains, buckwheat, beans, daikon radish, vegetables, grasshoppers, horse chestnuts, wild greens<br />Urban Restaurants: sushi, soba, ramen, rice cake/bean soup, eel, tea houses<br />
  23. 23. 17c Kusumi Morikage: Rice Cultivation Four Seasons, left panels<br />
  24. 24. 17c Kusumi Morikage: Rice Cultivation Four Seasons, center panels<br />
  25. 25. 17c Kusumi Morikage: Rice Cultivation Four Seasons, right panels<br />
  26. 26. Yamaguchi: Flooded Rice Field w/ Tractor<br />
  27. 27. Yamaguchi: Dry Rice Field w/ Hoe<br />
  28. 28. Yamaguchi: Replanted Rice Field w/ Blower<br />
  29. 29. Rice Harvest<br />
  30. 30. Nagoya: Rice Harvest Drying<br />
  31. 31. Bento Lunch on Lacquer<br />
  32. 32. Kanazawa: Rice Bales as Restaurant Sign<br />
  33. 33. Osaka Rice Docks<br />
  34. 34. Nagoya: Soba Shop<br />
  35. 35. Sources<br />Susan Hanley, Everyday Things in Premodern Japan: The Hidden Legacy of Material Culture, UCP, 1997<br />William Wayne Farris, Japan to 1600: A Social And Economic History, U Hawaii Press, 2009<br />Yamakawa, Nihonshi Sogo Zuroku [Comprehensive Visual History of Japan]<br />Edo: Art in Japan, 1615-1868 by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC<br />Other Pictures by Jonathan Dresner<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/jondresner/<br />