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Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era
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Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era

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Presented by Julian D. Olden to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee of the National Invasive Species Council (2012)

Presented by Julian D. Olden to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee of the National Invasive Species Council (2012)

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  • 1. Julian  D.  Olden  University  of  Washington  Emerging  Vectors  of  Biological  Invasions  in  the  E-­‐commerce  Era  
  • 2. •  Risk  of  biological  invasions  are  present  from  all  trades  that  transport  live  organisms  –  aquaculture,    horticulture,  live  food,  pet,  biological  supply,  and  bait  •  2.8  billion  live  animals  were  legally  imported  into  the  U.S.  over  the  last  decade  (Romagosa  2011);  96%  of  fish  shipments  were  not  identified  (Smith  et  al.  2008)  Species  invasion  risk  from  trade  Halpern    et  al.  2008  Hulme  2009  
  • 3. •  The  Internet  has  unquestionably  broken  down  geographic  and  communication  barriers  associated  with  business  and  spawned  the  e-­‐commence  industry    Challenges  (modified  from  ISAC  Prevention  Sub-­‐committee  Draft  Doc.)    1.  Increased  volume  and  diversity  of  the  e-­‐commence  sector  2.  Difficulties  for  government  authorities  to  implement  and  enforce  regulations  pertaining  to  e-­‐commence  3.  Leverage  the  power  of  the  Internet  to  enhance  public  awareness  and  education  The  rapid  growth  of  e-­‐commence  
  • 4. •  Risk  assessment  offers  the  most  objective  policy  approach  to  allowing  or  prohibiting  species  in  e-­‐commence  •  “Know  thy  self,  know  thy  enemy.  A  thousand  battles,  a  thousand  victories.”  –  Sun  Tzu  •  E-­‐commence  provides  new  opportunities  to  import  new  species  from  previously  untapped  parts  of  the  world  Invasive  species  risk  assessment  
  • 5. •  How  will  global  changes  in  trade  and  climate  influence  the  supply  and  demand  for  introduced  ornamental  plants  in  the  United  States?    •  What  policy  and  educational  opportunities  exist  to  reduce  the  risk  of  invasion  from  e-­‐commence?  Today’s  Presentation  
  • 6. •  Gardeners  are  poised  to  plant  new  species  from  warmer  regions,  as  earlier  onset  of  spring  and  warmer  temperatures  decrease  the  requirement  for  winter-­‐hardiness  in  ornamental  plants  •  Similarly,  as  human  populations  increase  in  arid  regions  of  the  world,  demand  for  drought-­‐tolerant  plants  is  expanding  
  • 7. Supply  +  69%   +  9%  
  • 8. Demand    •  Xeriscaping  –  the  use  of  drought-­‐tolerant  plants  in  landscaping  –  could  increase  as  the  climate  warms  and  the  availability  and  variety  of  drought-­‐tolerant  species  grows  •  One  nursery  expanded  its  drought-­‐tolerant  species  offerings  by  37%  between  2005  and  2011  
  • 9. Shifting  hardiness  zones  and  the  American  gardener  
  • 10. •  The  intersection  of  emerging  supply  and  demand  forces  creates  considerable  motivation  for  novel  species  introductions  and  poses  the  greatest  risk  for  a  new  wave  of  plant  invasions  into  the  U.S.  •  Climate  change  is  likely  to  shift  hardiness  zones  northward  and  upward  in  elevation,  increasing  the  land  area  in  warm  zones  and  altering  demand  for  horticulture  species  •  Supplies  of  novel  species  from  emerging  trade  partners  could  meet  increasing  demand  for  species  adapted  to  warm  and  dry  environments.  Summary  
  • 11. •  “Black  Lists”  that  label  plants  as  “prohibited”  or  “restricted”  after  they  are  proven  harmful  will  be  ineffective  in  an  era  of  climate  change  and  emerging  growth  of  e-­‐commence  •  Emerging  US  trade  partners  are  unlikely  to  have  long  established  trade  relations,  so  the  invasiveness  of  species  supplied  by  these  partners  will  be  unknown  •  Addition  of  “Not  authorized  pending  pest  risk  analysis”  category  (USDA  APHIS)  represents  a  positive  step  forward  in  the  prevention  of  new  invasive  plants  Management  and  policy  implications  
  • 12. Education  and  public  awareness:    Social  commence  is  the  next  evolution  of  online  shopping  •  Social  commerce  is  when  a  retailer  uses  its  social  networking  site  as  a  commerce  platform;  in  other  words,  social  commerce  is  the  use  of  social  network(s)  in  the  context  of  e-­‐commerce  transactions  •  Social  commence  represents  a  huge  educational  opportunity,  but  how  best  to  capitalize?  •  Go  beyond  mere  web-­‐presence  by  engaging  in  social  media  (i.e.,  actively  contribute  to  chat  groups  and  Internet  forums)  to  educate  regarding  the  purchase  and  proper  disposal  of  live  organisms  

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