Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era

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Presented by Julian D. Olden to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee of the National Invasive Species Council (2012)

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Emerging vectors of biological invasions in the e-commerce era

  1. 1. Julian  D.  Olden  University  of  Washington  Emerging  Vectors  of  Biological  Invasions  in  the  E-­‐commerce  Era  
  2. 2. •  Risk  of  biological  invasions  are  present  from  all  trades  that  transport  live  organisms  –  aquaculture,    horticulture,  live  food,  pet,  biological  supply,  and  bait  •  2.8  billion  live  animals  were  legally  imported  into  the  U.S.  over  the  last  decade  (Romagosa  2011);  96%  of  fish  shipments  were  not  identified  (Smith  et  al.  2008)  Species  invasion  risk  from  trade  Halpern    et  al.  2008  Hulme  2009  
  3. 3. •  The  Internet  has  unquestionably  broken  down  geographic  and  communication  barriers  associated  with  business  and  spawned  the  e-­‐commence  industry    Challenges  (modified  from  ISAC  Prevention  Sub-­‐committee  Draft  Doc.)    1.  Increased  volume  and  diversity  of  the  e-­‐commence  sector  2.  Difficulties  for  government  authorities  to  implement  and  enforce  regulations  pertaining  to  e-­‐commence  3.  Leverage  the  power  of  the  Internet  to  enhance  public  awareness  and  education  The  rapid  growth  of  e-­‐commence  
  4. 4. •  Risk  assessment  offers  the  most  objective  policy  approach  to  allowing  or  prohibiting  species  in  e-­‐commence  •  “Know  thy  self,  know  thy  enemy.  A  thousand  battles,  a  thousand  victories.”  –  Sun  Tzu  •  E-­‐commence  provides  new  opportunities  to  import  new  species  from  previously  untapped  parts  of  the  world  Invasive  species  risk  assessment  
  5. 5. •  How  will  global  changes  in  trade  and  climate  influence  the  supply  and  demand  for  introduced  ornamental  plants  in  the  United  States?    •  What  policy  and  educational  opportunities  exist  to  reduce  the  risk  of  invasion  from  e-­‐commence?  Today’s  Presentation  
  6. 6. •  Gardeners  are  poised  to  plant  new  species  from  warmer  regions,  as  earlier  onset  of  spring  and  warmer  temperatures  decrease  the  requirement  for  winter-­‐hardiness  in  ornamental  plants  •  Similarly,  as  human  populations  increase  in  arid  regions  of  the  world,  demand  for  drought-­‐tolerant  plants  is  expanding  
  7. 7. Supply  +  69%   +  9%  
  8. 8. Demand    •  Xeriscaping  –  the  use  of  drought-­‐tolerant  plants  in  landscaping  –  could  increase  as  the  climate  warms  and  the  availability  and  variety  of  drought-­‐tolerant  species  grows  •  One  nursery  expanded  its  drought-­‐tolerant  species  offerings  by  37%  between  2005  and  2011  
  9. 9. Shifting  hardiness  zones  and  the  American  gardener  
  10. 10. •  The  intersection  of  emerging  supply  and  demand  forces  creates  considerable  motivation  for  novel  species  introductions  and  poses  the  greatest  risk  for  a  new  wave  of  plant  invasions  into  the  U.S.  •  Climate  change  is  likely  to  shift  hardiness  zones  northward  and  upward  in  elevation,  increasing  the  land  area  in  warm  zones  and  altering  demand  for  horticulture  species  •  Supplies  of  novel  species  from  emerging  trade  partners  could  meet  increasing  demand  for  species  adapted  to  warm  and  dry  environments.  Summary  
  11. 11. •  “Black  Lists”  that  label  plants  as  “prohibited”  or  “restricted”  after  they  are  proven  harmful  will  be  ineffective  in  an  era  of  climate  change  and  emerging  growth  of  e-­‐commence  •  Emerging  US  trade  partners  are  unlikely  to  have  long  established  trade  relations,  so  the  invasiveness  of  species  supplied  by  these  partners  will  be  unknown  •  Addition  of  “Not  authorized  pending  pest  risk  analysis”  category  (USDA  APHIS)  represents  a  positive  step  forward  in  the  prevention  of  new  invasive  plants  Management  and  policy  implications  
  12. 12. Education  and  public  awareness:    Social  commence  is  the  next  evolution  of  online  shopping  •  Social  commerce  is  when  a  retailer  uses  its  social  networking  site  as  a  commerce  platform;  in  other  words,  social  commerce  is  the  use  of  social  network(s)  in  the  context  of  e-­‐commerce  transactions  •  Social  commence  represents  a  huge  educational  opportunity,  but  how  best  to  capitalize?  •  Go  beyond  mere  web-­‐presence  by  engaging  in  social  media  (i.e.,  actively  contribute  to  chat  groups  and  Internet  forums)  to  educate  regarding  the  purchase  and  proper  disposal  of  live  organisms  

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