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The Future of the US-Japanese Security Agreements By Ellen Henderson
History of US-Japanese Relations 1854The Convention of KanagawaThe first treaty between both countries signed between the Japanese Empire and Commodore Matthew Perry, who represented the U.S. The treaty enhanced U.S.-Japanese trade relations. 1937Second Sino-Japanese WarThe second war between China and Japan begins and then transitions from limited conflict to a full-on war that would eventually blend into World War II. 1941Pearl Harbor AttackedIn a surprise strike, Japan attacks the America naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, officially bringing the U.S. into World War II.
History of US-Japanese Relations 1945Japanese SurrenderThe U.S. drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima leading to the surrender of the Japanese Empire and the occupation of Japan by the Allies. 1951The San Francisco TreatySigned by the allied powers and Japan the Treaty of San Francisco provided compensation to civilians and prisoners of war and granted Japan its post-war independence from the Allies. 1960Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and SecuritySigned in January of 1960, the treaty brought closer military and economic cooperation between both countries.
History of US-Japanese Relations 1978US-Japan Guidelines for Defense CooperationAuthorized Japan to expand its military participation from operations confined to the home islands to operations designed to ensure the peace and stability of the Far East 1995National Defense Program Outline (NDPO)Called for an expansion of Japan’s defense capabilities beyond national defense requirements and address military situations in areas surrounding Japan Resulted in Japan providing military assistance to the US in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) 2005US-Japan Alliance: Transformation and Realignment for the FutureStrengthened mutual cooperation in areas such as policy coordination, intelligence sharing, peacekeeping operations, and mutual exchanges of military technology
Japan-US Security Treaty Japan Gained independence Gained access to the US market Gained security from a powerful nation Increase in crime and accidents with US troops Dragged into an unwanted war with China, North Korea and the Soviet Union US Project Power in the Western Pacific Have troops and bases in Japan Strategic location for defending South Korea and Taiwan Strategic location for containing the Soviet Union and Communist China
Past “Peace State” identity US occupation (1945-1952) imposed reforms that aimed to democratize and demilitarize Japan Japan’s leadership focused on mitigating the impact of the “threat based” international environment “International State” identity Prime ministers since 1970 began incorporating internationalism Prime Minister Nakasone Yasuhiro (1982-1987) and his “grand design” US Presidents “Nixon shocks”: imposing 10% tax on imports, causing Yen to surge in value, reapproachment with China Clinton’s visit to Beijing in 1998 and calling China a “strategic partner”
Current LDP to DPJ In 2009, the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (LDP) was defeated by the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) after 54 years in power DPJ wants more equal footed relations with the US United Nations Security Council Obama supports Japan’s bid to become a UN Security Council permanent member Okinawa Marine Futenma Air Base in Okinawa causing some severing in US-Japan relations
Current- Cont. South Korea, North Korea and China Japan’s relations with South Korea are mending, but slowly due to their historical past South Korea is an ally of the United States Good relations between the South Korea and Japan are important for the US Japan has sent SDF personnel to train with the US/ South Korean naval forces against North Korean aggression North Korea poses a threat to both Japan and the United States Common enemy and Japan needs security from North Korea Japan is starting to realize the importance of having good relations with China for security issues, but relations are still strained Japan and China relations would decrease Japan’s reliance on the US The Island of Ishigaki has placed pressure on their relations as incidents take place on disputed territories
Future- Proposal 1 Strengthening of the security agreements between US and Japan With the threat of North Korea and China there will be a common enemy and a need for stronger national security Trade: stronger security agreement will result in an increase of trade between each country Strengthening of other multinational security frameworks like ASEAN Regional Forum
Future- Proposal 2 Amendments to the security agreements that decrease the US’ role The DPJ wanting to put Japan and US on more equal footing “Alliance without bases” Both Japan and the US know the importance of their relationship for political and economical reasons Reducing the US’ role in Japan would not cause one nation to go against the other Would allow Japan to be more independent and able to defend itself Revamping of Article 9 Allow for the buildup of Japan’s military strength and presence in Asia If United States is in need of more troops from its allies, Japan can deploy its troops for backup Japan would be able to better its relations with other countries without the need for approval of or from the United States
Future- Proposal 3 Put an end to the security alliance Would take US forces out of Japan Allow for Japan to defend itself and be in charge of its own security issues The US would not need to provide full protection for Japan which would allocate the US’ resources to more pressing issues China does not like the US’ presence in Japan or Japan’s willingness to support the security treaty "If the American presence in Asia were removed, the security of Asia would be imperiled, with consequences for Asia and America alike. Our ability to affect the course of events would be constrained, our markets and our interests would be jeopardized. To benefit from the growth and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region, the United States must remain fully engaged economically, diplomatically, and militarily." (East Asian Security Report)
What Do I Recommend? Strengthening of the security agreements between US and Japan China and North Korea Benefits in Trade Possibility for a Free Trade Agreement Possibility of re-continuation of naval support for Afghanistan