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  1. 1. Can the U.S. do more to help Haiti?<br />
  2. 2. Background on Haiti:<br />The native Taino Amerindians - inhabited the island of Hispaniola when discovered by Columbus in 1492.<br />In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola.<br />The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean through heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. <br />Late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE.<br />Haiti became the first black republic to declare independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. <br />
  3. 3. Background Continued:<br />Population: 9,648,924<br />Population Growth Rate: -1.715% (2010 est.)<br />Life Expectancy of Total Population: 29.93 years<br />People living with AIDS: 120,000<br />Ethnic Groups: black 95%, mulatto and white 5%<br />Major Infectious Diseases: food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever<br />vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria<br />water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)<br />Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write<br />total population: 52.9%<br />
  4. 4. Dependency on Economy<br />The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability.<br />Four tropical storms in 2008 severely damaged the transportation infrastructure and agricultural sector.<br />Haitians make their living through subsistence farming, Haiti also has an agricultural export sector<br />Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation<br />Haiti ‘s small mining industry extracts minerals worth US$13 million annually<br />Labor Force: 3.643 million<br />agriculture: 66%<br />industry: 9%<br />services: 25%<br />
  5. 5. Effects of a paralyzed Economy:<br />80% of the population live under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty<br />Haiti suffers from lack of investment because of insecurity and limited infrastructure & severe trade deficit. <br />Unemployment rate in the formal sector falls between 70-80%<br />54% of Haitians live on less than $1/day while illiteracy is estimated at 44%<br />Indebtedness <br />Haiti ranks 154 of 177 countries in the UN's Human Development Index. <br />widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs<br />
  6. 6. Foreign Investment and Affairs<br />Haiti has been receiving minimal foreign investment in the past 20 years.<br />Only consistent source of outside investments have been development aid and loans<br />To encourage foreign investment, the interim government approved a three-year “tax holiday” for all foreign businesses that invest in Haiti.<br />Foreign Benefactors: U.S., European Union, Inter-American Development Bank, & the World Bank <br />Implementation of 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) to maintain civil order<br />
  7. 7. History of U.S. Economic Support & Aid to Haiti<br />HOPE Act: boosted apparel exports and investment by providing tariff-free access to the US.<br />HOPE II, improved the export environment for the apparel sector <br />Apparel sector: Accounts for two-thirds of Haitian exports and nearly one-tenth of GDP.<br />Haiti met IMF and World Bank's conditions for the HIPCP, qualifying for cancellation of $1.2 billion in external debt.<br />Debt forgiveness of $525 million through the HIPC initiative achieved thus far.<br />US/AID conflict mitigation programs: provided 100,000 Haitians with short-term jobs to rebuild infrastructure<br />US/AID activities financed access to basic health services to approximately 4.8 million (50% of the population)<br />US/AID Lending to rural and semi-rural micro-businesses reached more than 370,000 clients, particularly women.<br />
  8. 8. U.S. Aid During 2008 Hurricanes<br />Provided emergency food assistance to more than 2 million Haitians.<br />Within days of hurricanes striking Haiti, USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance supported more than 40,000 displaced families with emergency supplies and early recovery activities<br />USAID is directing the delivery of more than $100 million in hurricane relief and reconstruction activities designed to restore public services and livelihoods, infrastructure, stabilize watersheds, and develop the Government of Haiti’s disaster preparedness and mitigation capacity.<br />The U.S. Government, through the U.S. Agency for International Development, strengthened Haitian governments ability to detect earthquake activity by funding five new seismometers<br />Removed over 881,000 cubic meters of rubble through programs including cash-for-work and vaccinated over 1 million people against highly contagious diseases like polio.<br />
  9. 9. Hesitation to Provide Additional Aid:<br />Evidence of systematic electoral fraud and the failure of the Haitian government to implement accountability measures<br />The country is heavily corrupt. Every year much of the humanitarian aid is pocketed by officials.<br />On average, opening a business took 204 days. For comparison, the average was 73.3 days in Latin America and 16.3 days in OECD countries<br />The political elite is also involved in various criminal businesses.<br />Leading members of the military and police have cooperated with the illegal drug trade since the 1980s.<br />
  10. 10. Benefits of Providing Future Aid:<br />Potential Economic and Political Stability, without incorporating neoliberal policies<br />Boost in the garment and automotive parts exports and investment, and employments overall<br />Improvements in economic opportunities and livelihoods for hundreds of thousands of Haitians<br />Social development<br />Expansion in vaccines, antiretroviral meds, and delivery of reproductive health services and health services overall<br />Access to clean water/water services <br />Prevention and containment in the spread of HIV/AIDS, resulting in a significantly lower death rate<br />Increased access to education/distant based education and scholarships<br />School Feeding Programs<br />Women’s empowerment programs<br />
  11. 11. Ramifications for Not Providing Future Aid<br />Continuous spread of poverty and preventative diseases, as seen with the recent Cholera outbreak<br />Substantial rises in unemployment (already affecting 2/3rds) due to a continual lack of economic infrastructure<br />Decreases in economic growth which foments human rights advancements and social stability<br />Proliferation in deaths among the Haitian citizens<br />Exigencies in women’s empowerment and democratization efforts<br />Increased hostility towards core nations, particularly the U.S. and France<br />Increased famine and malnutrition, along with environmental degradation<br />
  12. 12. Bibliography:<br />https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html<br />http://www.usaid.gov/locations/latin_america_caribbean/country/haiti/<br />http://countrystudies.us/haiti/44.htm<br />http://worldfacts.us/Haiti.htm<br />http://www.haiti.org/<br />