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Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education

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Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering ...

Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.

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  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Affordances of each social media typeThis slide covers social medias used for sharing content
  • Social media used for interaction, community building
  • The top 5
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • People will tell you their impairments.To create an accessible environment, you need to understand their disabilities.
  • AT- alternative keyboard or mouse - speech recognition software
  • AT- screen magnifiers - Screen readers - text-based interface
  • AT- interpretation - CART - captioning - print or other visual cues for sounds
  • AT- text transcription - reading and writing software
  • Participation of students with disabilities. What the educators need to be aware of when considering integration of social media into their curriculum.
  • Social Media and assistive/adaptive technology, will it work with what the user has?
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • Social media on the go. How does this affect users with disabilities?

Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education Presentation Transcript

  • Social Media As It Relates to Students With Disabilities inPost-Secondary Education
    Texas A&M University System
    DTN Summer Institute 2011
    June 20 – 21
    Galveston, Texas
  • Social Media as it Relates to Students With Disabilities in Post-Secondary Educationby Joseph Doan and Alice Krueger is licensed under a
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • Abstract
    Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.
  • The Presenters
    Alice Krueger
    President
    Virtual Ability, Inc.
    A former educator, professional development provider, educational researcher, and published author and editor, Ms. Krueger became fully disabled with multiple sclerosis. She now volunteers in Second Life with the Virtual Ability community, which she founded. Her organization, a 501(c)3, is dedicated to helping people with any kind of disability- physical, mental, emotional, or sensory- enter and thrive in virtual worlds. The Virtual Ability community in Second Life won the first Linden Prize for “an innovative inworld project that improves the way people work, learn and communicate in their daily lives outside of the virtual world.”
  • The Presenters
    Joseph D. Doan
    Educational Technologist
    Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
    Mr. Doan joined Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi as a Technology Trainer in 2007, and began providing technology training and support to faculty at TAMUCC.  In 2009 Mr. Doan became the Educational Technologist and expanded his activities to identifying, evaluating, providing consultation and training for the integration of technology into the curriculum.  Mr. Doan served on the Texas A&M System’s Distance Education Advisory Council and is currently spearheading the adoption of the massively multi-user virtual environment Second Life at TAMUCC.  Mr. Doan is also working toward collaboration with TAMUCC’s Office of Disability Services to address accessibility of technology integrated into course instruction.
  • What is Social Media & Why We Care
    Social Media is defined by Merriam Webster dictionary as “forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos).
  • The Social Media Landscape
  • What is Social Media & Why We Care
    Some popular social media today:
    Blogs
    Wikis
    YouTube
    Facebook
    Twitter
    Multi-User Virtual Environments
  • Affordances of Social Media
    Chickering & Gamson's Seven Principles for Good Practice in Education
    Encourages contact between students and faculty
    Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
    Encourages active learning
    Gives prompt feedback
    Emphasizes time on task
    Communicates high expectations
    Respects diverse talents and ways of learning
  • Encourages Contact between Students and Faculty
    Example
    Class group in FaceBook or blog
    Benefits
    Informal & conversational styled communication, and a sense of anonymity allows students to feel more at ease communicating with faculty, especially students who are shy and tend to not engage when face-to-face
    Barriers
    General accessibility concerns.The most common barrier would be the account creation, or subscription process to use the tools or service
  • Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
    Example
    Assigned activities requiring selected social media to communicate, complete tasks
    Benefits
    Collaborative learning, peer mentoring, knowledge sharing, community building, etc.
    Barriers
    User-created content: most students would are not aware of accessibility concerns, and therefore would not contribute content that would be "accessible”
  • Encourages Active Learning
    Example
    Formulating, reformatting tweets
    Benefits
    Critical thinking, reflection on prior knowledge, scaffolded learning
    Barriers
    Tools designed with only the majority in mind
  • Give Prompt Feedback
    Example
    Tweets, blogs
    Benefits
    Information exchange is instant and continuous
    Barriers
    Notification methods do not accommodate accessibility
  • Emphasize Time on Task
    Example
    Posting a blog or creating a wiki page
    Benefits
    Contributes to academic, and eventually, career goals
    Barriers
    The tool is difficult to use or requires so much time to learn that it the benefit of using the tool can’t be realized
  • Communicating High Expectations
    Example
    Peer or public critique of created content
    Benefits
    The learning is more meaningful, and better prepares the student to meet the goals of a college education
    Barriers
    Students with learning impairments
  • Respect Diverse Talents andWays of Learning
    Example
    Allow for different modalities of consumption and production
    Benefits
    Provides for greater validity of assessing student learning
    Barriers
    Incompatibility with Assistive Technology
  • Affordances of Social Media
    Engagement: student-teacher, student-student
    Collaboration
    Critical thinking
    Active learning
    Microblogging
    Engagement
    Community building
    Sample blog: http://blogs.cornell.edu/vien-interns/
  • Affordances of Virtual Worlds
    Virtual worlds like Second Life are in the unique position of having the ability to provide the follow:
    Immersive experience in a 3-D environment
    Synchronous / asynchronous collaboration on a global scale
    Digital artifact creation
    Active learning
    Multimodal
  • The Study
    Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study (2009) Fichten et al.
    This study explored e-learning problems and solutions reported by 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities.
    They discuss how the different roles and perspectives of the four participant groups influence their views, and make recommendations addressing identified common e-learning problems.
  • Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study
    Learning disability (largest group)
    Mobility impairment / wheelchair user
    ADD/ADHD
    Psychological or psychiatric disability
    Health or medically related impairment
    Deaf / hard of hearing
  • Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study (cont)
    Difficulty using hands or arms
    Visual impairment/ low vision
    Speech / communication impairment
    Totally blind (smallest group)
  • Use of Adaptive/Assistive Technology
    62% said they needed AT to learn effectively
    Most use more than one kind of AT (mean = 2.65 technologies/student)
    Most felt they could use their AT effectively, but much variability
  • Types of AT Used
    Writing software (e.g., WYNN) (most common)
    Screen reader software (e.g., JAWS)
    Scanning and OCR
    Dictation software (e.g., Dragon NaturallySpeaking)
    Screen magnifier (e.g., ZoomText)
  • Types of AT Used (cont)
    Large screen monitor
    Adapted mouse
    Adapted keyboard
    Alternative display (e.g. refreshable Braille display) (least common)
  • No significant difference in learning problems between AT users and those who didn’t need AT
    Is AT Use Hindering Students?
  • Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities
    Online course notes available
    Aids understanding, success
    Work at own pace
    Work at home
    Other course materials available
  • Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities (cont.)
    Aids organization, time management
    Convenient communication with professors, peers
    Interest and stimulation
    Can reformat materials as needed
    Anonymity, reduces social anxiety
  • Student-Identified Problems*
    Inaccessibility of websites/course management systems
    Technical difficulties
    Poor use of e-learning by professors
    Difficulty connecting to websites/course management systems
    Students' lack of knowledge of how to use e-learning
    * Majority of respondents had learning disabilities
    * Would be interesting to compare to students without disabilities
  • Commonalities Among StudentSub-groups– Problems
    All groups had problems with:
    Inaccessible websites and course management systems
    Technical difficulties
    Audio-visuals
    Time limits
    PDFs
    Lack of needed assistive technology
  • “Technical Difficulties”
    Connecting to websites and course management systems
    Downloading and opening files
    Web pages wouldn’t load
    Video clips take excessive time to download
  • “Poor Use of E-Learning by Professor”
    Does not get the material onto the website on time
    Online course incomplete
    In class PowerPoint presentations delivered too quickly
  • Student-Identified Outcomes of Problems
    Unresolved (67%; all of the students’ top five problems)
    Solved using a non e-learning solution
    Professor provided assistance
    Obtained needed computer software or hardware
  • Commonalities Among Student Sub-groups– Outcomes
    All groups, most common outcome was “unresolved”
    All groups, next most common outcome was “none-learning solution”
  • Differences Among Student Sub-groups(unexpected results)
    Students with learning disabilities, mobility impairments, and arm/hand issues lacked knowledge about how to use e-learning effectively.
    Students with psychiatric or health issues had problems due to poor use of e-learning by professors.
  • Differences Among Student Sub-groups(expected results)
    Students with hearing impairments had problems with accessibility of audio and video materials.
    Students with visual impairments had troubles with inaccessibility of course notes and materials, especially PDFs.
  • Legislative requirements:
    Sections 504 and 508
    Guidelines:
    WCAG
    Accessibility- The WHY and the HOW
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 states that "no qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under" any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance.
    Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act effectively applies the requirement of Section 504 to state and local agencies.
  • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
    Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, implemented in 1998, requires that that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the Federal government be accessible to persons with disabilities.
    Colleges and universities are generally not subject to Section 508, although some federal grants may require compliance with Section 508. The Federal Pell grant is an example.
  • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
    The Federal Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility and Compliance Act, and its revisions, became the current Section 508 in 1998.
    The Access Board is the agency established to provide standards and guidelines regarding technical compliance with Section 508.
     
  • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
    Technical standards exist in six specific areas:
    Software Applications and Operating Systems
    Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications
    Telecommunications Products
    Videos or Multimedia Products
    Self Contained, Closed Products
    Desktop and Portable Computers
  • Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
    E103.3.1 Electronic Content
    Any official communication of the institution that supports the institution’s mission necessary for employees to perform their job functions, or when communicated to a member of the public, are necessary for them to conduct official business with the institution, regardless of format, transmission or storage method, shall conform to provisions of Section 508.
  • Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
    Chapter 5: Electronic Documents
    The provisions of this chapter apply to electronic documents, which are mostly static, read-only, non-interactive electronic content. Examples include Word files, PDFs, PowerPoint presentations, Excel spreadsheets, and simple web pages (which do not contain Flash).
  • Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
    Chapter 6: Synchronized Media Content and Players
    The provisions of this chapter require that:
    Streaming video must include real-time video descriptions
    Video containing multiple visual areas of focus must provide video descriptions for all areas of focus
    Controls for closed captions and video descriptions must be presented in the same context as other controls
    Users must be able to independently control background sounds and speech tracks
  • Sections 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
    Note, there is no preference for mainstream Information Communication Technology (ICT) product accessibility. Accessibility through Assistive Technology (AT) is equally accessible.
  • POUR
    All materials for e-learning through social media must be:
    Perceivable
    Operable
    Understandable
    Robust
  • Web Content Accessibility Guide
    WCAG 2.0 Guidelines
    1 Perceivable
    1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
    1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guide
    WCAG 2.0 Guidelines
    1 Perceivable
    1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
    1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guide
    2 Operable
    2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
    2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content.
    2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.
    2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guide
    3 Understandable
    3.1 Make text content readable and understandable.
    3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
    3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
  • Web Content Accessibility Guide
    4 Robust
    4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.
  • User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)
    Some semantic elements are not supported well by assistive technologies: code, del, dfn, ins, kbd, s, sub, sup, tt, and q.
    Consider whether these elements are used in a way that requires users to be able to access the semantic meaning of the markup in order to understand the content, if so, this information should be provided in text.
  • User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)
    Most screen readers do not provide automatic notification about em, strong, b, or i.
    JAWS contains support for blockquote and cite. WindowEyes contains support for blockquote, q and cite.
    Firefox 1.0 (Windows) and higher, Opera 7.54 (Windows) and higher, Mozilla 1.7.3 (Windows) and higher automatically generate quotes around q elements, but Internet Explorer 6 for Windows does not
  • Types of Disabling Conditions
    Keyboard/mouse
    Print
    Speech/hearing
    Cognitive
  • Some Impairments are Not Disabling for E-Learning
    • Paralysis
    • Amputation
    • Neurological disease
    • Degeneration
    • Blindness
    Possible Causes of Keyboard/Mouse Disability
    • Aging
    • Low vision
    • Blindness
    • Color blindness
    • Dyslexia
    • English as a Second Language
    Possible Causes of Print Disability
    • Aging
    • Hearing impairment
    • Deafness
    • Accident or injury
    • Stroke
    • Neurological diseases
    Possible Causes of Hearing/Speech Disability
    • Learning disability
    • ADD/ADHD
    • PTSD
    • TBI
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Autism spectrum
    • Developmental disability
    Possible Causes of Cognitive disability
  • Considering Social Media Integration
    When considering a social media tools or services for integration into your curriculum, the following questions of Accessibility must be considered:
    Section 504 & 508
    Compatibility with assistive technology
    Design: Social Networking Sites (SNS)
    Account creation
    Navigation
    Ad placements and dynamic content
    User-created content
    Mobile access (smartphones, PDAs, iPad, etc.)
  • Assistive or Adaptive Technology
    Screen readers
    Zoom text, screen magnifiers
    Braille display
    Speech recognition
    Speech-to-Text, Text-to-Speech
    Eye trackers
  • Social Media Site Design
    Design, of Social Networking Sites (SNS)
    Account creation
    Navigation
    Ad placements
    Dynamic content
    User created content
    Keyboard navigation
    Input / Output options
  • Mobile Access
    Touch screens
    Navigation
  • Blackboard Learn 9.1 Accessibility
    The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) recently awarded Blackboard Learn™, Release 9.1 with a Nonvisual Accessibility Gold Certification, making it the first and only learning management system to achieve certification
    Accessibility resources for BlackboardLearn 8, 9 & 9.1
    http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Learn/Resources/Accessibility/Accessibility-Resources.aspx
  • Solutions to Accessibility Barriers
    Improved standards compliance by service providers and developers
    Accessibility support in web browsers & plug-ins
    Webvisum for Firefox browser (www.webvisum.com)
    Accessible versions of social media sites
    EasyChirp (www.easychirp.com)
    Mobile Facebook (m.facebook.com)
    AIM facebook chat
  • Solutions to Accessibility Barriers
    YouTube
    Added capability for users to add closed captioning to their own videos
  • Universal Design for Learning
    Universal Design “promotes an expanded goal to make products and environments welcoming and useful to groups that are diverse in many dimensions, including gender, race and ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, ability, disability, and learning style” (Burgstahler, 2009)
  • Universal Design for Learning
    Students with Invisible Disabilities
    Learning disabilities: “Some faculty at higher education institutions recognize individual differences in receptive and expressive learning profiles but make incorrect assumptions about lack of motivation, poor readiness for academic expectations of the institution, and generally low ability level.” (Spencer & Romero, 2009)
  • Universal Design for Learning
    Technological Environments
    The learning environment should provide accessible alternative forms of or methods for:
    Information being communicated by or via the environment
    Provide inputs or access the environment’s controls
    Manipulate the system or device
    Instruction documentation
  • Universal Design for Learning
    Accessible Web-Based Multimedia
    Produce media with accessibility in mind
    Text description for streamed content
    Speech and background sound should be on different tracks
    Closed-captioning for on demand video
  • Americans with Disabilities Act
    Section 508
    United States Access Board
    UK Disability Discrimination Act
    Australian Disability Discrimination Act
    Resources – Regulations / Guidelines
  • Canadian Human Rights Act, Article 25
    United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
    • Web Accessibility Initiative (WIA)
    Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
    Center for Universal Design at North Carolina Sate University
    Resources – Regulations / Guidelines
  • 100 Killer Web Accessibility Resources: Blogs, Forums and Tutorials
    http://tinyurl.com/3hls7g2
    Free and Open Source Software to aid those with Visual Impairments
    http://tinyurl.com/66dctcg
    Google’s Accessibility web page
    http://www.google.com/accessibility/products/
    Resources – Technology
  • VoiceOver, Apple Computer’s screen-access technology
    http://www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover/
    Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 Service Pack 1 to add image Alt Text capability
    http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2525412
    LIbreOffice: an open source productivity suite that is compatible with Apple Computer’s VoiceOver
    http://www.libreoffice.org/
    Resources – Technology
  • Logitech Dual Action™ Gamepad
    http://tinyurl.com/3p5wbjv
    Make PDF files accessible
    http://www.cew.wisc.edu/accessibility/tutorials/accesspdf.htm
    Microsoft Office 2010 (for PCs)
    http://www.microsoft.com/enable/products/office2010/
    Resources – Technology, continued
  • Nuance’s Speech Recognition
    http://www.nuance.com/dragon/index.htm
    Technology and Universal Design
    http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/technology.html
    WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey #3 Results
    http://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey3/
    Resources – Technology, continued
  • Web accessibility for the Twitter website application
    http://www.easychirp.com/index.php
    Web browser accessibility extensions information
    http://tinyurl.com/6cr5228
    Resources – Technology, continued
  • References
    Burgstahler, S. E. (2009) Universal Design in Higher Education. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (p 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., Klomp, R., & Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 241–256.
    Spencer, A. M. & Romero, O. (2009) Engaging Higher Education Faculty in Universal Design: Addressing Needs of Students with Invisible Disabilities. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (pp 145-156). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  • Contact Us
    Joseph Doan (SL: IzzyLander Karu)
    joseph.doan@tamucc.edu
    Gentle Heron
    gentle@virtualability.org