Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education


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Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.

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  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Affordances of each social media typeThis slide covers social medias used for sharing content
  • Social media used for interaction, community building
  • The top 5
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • People will tell you their impairments.To create an accessible environment, you need to understand their disabilities.
  • AT- alternative keyboard or mouse - speech recognition software
  • AT- screen magnifiers - Screen readers - text-based interface
  • AT- interpretation - CART - captioning - print or other visual cues for sounds
  • AT- text transcription - reading and writing software
  • Participation of students with disabilities. What the educators need to be aware of when considering integration of social media into their curriculum.
  • Social Media and assistive/adaptive technology, will it work with what the user has?
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • Social media on the go. How does this affect users with disabilities?
  • Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education

    1. 1. Social Media As It Relates to Students With Disabilities inPost-Secondary Education<br />Texas A&M University System<br />DTN Summer Institute 2011<br />June 20 – 21<br />Galveston, Texas<br />
    2. 2. Social Media as it Relates to Students With Disabilities in Post-Secondary Educationby Joseph Doan and Alice Krueger is licensed under a<br />Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.<br />
    3. 3. Abstract<br />Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.<br />
    4. 4. The Presenters<br />Alice Krueger<br />President<br />Virtual Ability, Inc.<br />A former educator, professional development provider, educational researcher, and published author and editor, Ms. Krueger became fully disabled with multiple sclerosis. She now volunteers in Second Life with the Virtual Ability community, which she founded. Her organization, a 501(c)3, is dedicated to helping people with any kind of disability- physical, mental, emotional, or sensory- enter and thrive in virtual worlds. The Virtual Ability community in Second Life won the first Linden Prize for “an innovative inworld project that improves the way people work, learn and communicate in their daily lives outside of the virtual world.” <br />
    5. 5. The Presenters<br />Joseph D. Doan<br />Educational Technologist<br />Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi<br />Mr. Doan joined Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi as a Technology Trainer in 2007, and began providing technology training and support to faculty at TAMUCC.  In 2009 Mr. Doan became the Educational Technologist and expanded his activities to identifying, evaluating, providing consultation and training for the integration of technology into the curriculum.  Mr. Doan served on the Texas A&M System’s Distance Education Advisory Council and is currently spearheading the adoption of the massively multi-user virtual environment Second Life at TAMUCC.  Mr. Doan is also working toward collaboration with TAMUCC’s Office of Disability Services to address accessibility of technology integrated into course instruction.<br />
    6. 6. What is Social Media & Why We Care<br />Social Media is defined by Merriam Webster dictionary as “forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos).<br />
    7. 7. The Social Media Landscape<br />
    8. 8. What is Social Media & Why We Care<br />Some popular social media today:<br />Blogs<br />Wikis<br />YouTube<br />Facebook<br />Twitter<br />Multi-User Virtual Environments<br />
    9. 9. Affordances of Social Media<br />Chickering & Gamson's Seven Principles for Good Practice in Education<br />Encourages contact between students and faculty<br />Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students<br />Encourages active learning<br />Gives prompt feedback<br />Emphasizes time on task<br />Communicates high expectations<br />Respects diverse talents and ways of learning<br />
    10. 10. Encourages Contact between Students and Faculty<br />Example<br />Class group in FaceBook or blog<br />Benefits<br />Informal & conversational styled communication, and a sense of anonymity allows students to feel more at ease communicating with faculty, especially students who are shy and tend to not engage when face-to-face<br />Barriers<br />General accessibility concerns.The most common barrier would be the account creation, or subscription process to use the tools or service <br />
    11. 11. Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students<br />Example<br />Assigned activities requiring selected social media to communicate, complete tasks<br />Benefits<br />Collaborative learning, peer mentoring, knowledge sharing, community building, etc. <br />Barriers<br />User-created content: most students would are not aware of accessibility concerns, and therefore would not contribute content that would be "accessible” <br />
    12. 12. Encourages Active Learning<br />Example<br />Formulating, reformatting tweets<br />Benefits<br />Critical thinking, reflection on prior knowledge, scaffolded learning<br />Barriers<br />Tools designed with only the majority in mind<br />
    13. 13. Give Prompt Feedback<br />Example<br />Tweets, blogs<br />Benefits<br />Information exchange is instant and continuous<br />Barriers<br />Notification methods do not accommodate accessibility<br />
    14. 14. Emphasize Time on Task<br />Example<br />Posting a blog or creating a wiki page<br />Benefits<br />Contributes to academic, and eventually, career goals<br />Barriers<br />The tool is difficult to use or requires so much time to learn that it the benefit of using the tool can’t be realized<br />
    15. 15. Communicating High Expectations<br />Example<br />Peer or public critique of created content<br />Benefits<br />The learning is more meaningful, and better prepares the student to meet the goals of a college education<br />Barriers<br />Students with learning impairments<br />
    16. 16. Respect Diverse Talents andWays of Learning<br />Example<br />Allow for different modalities of consumption and production<br />Benefits<br />Provides for greater validity of assessing student learning<br />Barriers<br />Incompatibility with Assistive Technology<br />
    17. 17. Affordances of Social Media<br />Engagement: student-teacher, student-student<br />Collaboration<br />Critical thinking<br />Active learning<br />Microblogging<br />Engagement<br />Community building<br />Sample blog:<br />
    18. 18. Affordances of Virtual Worlds<br />Virtual worlds like Second Life are in the unique position of having the ability to provide the follow:<br />Immersive experience in a 3-D environment<br />Synchronous / asynchronous collaboration on a global scale<br />Digital artifact creation<br />Active learning<br />Multimodal<br />
    19. 19. The Study<br />Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study (2009) Fichten et al.<br />This study explored e-learning problems and solutions reported by 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities.<br />They discuss how the different roles and perspectives of the four participant groups influence their views, and make recommendations addressing identified common e-learning problems.<br />
    20. 20. Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study<br />Learning disability (largest group)<br />Mobility impairment / wheelchair user<br />ADD/ADHD<br />Psychological or psychiatric disability<br />Health or medically related impairment<br />Deaf / hard of hearing<br />
    21. 21. Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study (cont)<br />Difficulty using hands or arms<br />Visual impairment/ low vision<br />Speech / communication impairment<br />Totally blind (smallest group)<br />
    22. 22. Use of Adaptive/Assistive Technology<br />62% said they needed AT to learn effectively<br />Most use more than one kind of AT (mean = 2.65 technologies/student)<br />Most felt they could use their AT effectively, but much variability<br />
    23. 23. Types of AT Used<br />Writing software (e.g., WYNN) (most common)<br />Screen reader software (e.g., JAWS)<br />Scanning and OCR<br />Dictation software (e.g., Dragon NaturallySpeaking)<br />Screen magnifier (e.g., ZoomText)<br />
    24. 24. Types of AT Used (cont)<br />Large screen monitor<br />Adapted mouse<br />Adapted keyboard<br />Alternative display (e.g. refreshable Braille display) (least common)<br />
    25. 25. No significant difference in learning problems between AT users and those who didn’t need AT<br />Is AT Use Hindering Students?<br />
    26. 26. Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities<br />Online course notes available<br />Aids understanding, success<br />Work at own pace<br />Work at home<br />Other course materials available<br />
    27. 27. Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities (cont.)<br />Aids organization, time management<br />Convenient communication with professors, peers<br />Interest and stimulation<br />Can reformat materials as needed<br />Anonymity, reduces social anxiety<br />
    28. 28. Student-Identified Problems*<br />Inaccessibility of websites/course management systems<br />Technical difficulties<br />Poor use of e-learning by professors<br />Difficulty connecting to websites/course management systems<br />Students' lack of knowledge of how to use e-learning<br />* Majority of respondents had learning disabilities<br />* Would be interesting to compare to students without disabilities<br />
    29. 29. Commonalities Among StudentSub-groups– Problems<br />All groups had problems with:<br />Inaccessible websites and course management systems<br />Technical difficulties<br />Audio-visuals<br />Time limits<br />PDFs<br />Lack of needed assistive technology<br />
    30. 30. “Technical Difficulties”<br />Connecting to websites and course management systems<br />Downloading and opening files<br />Web pages wouldn’t load<br />Video clips take excessive time to download<br />
    31. 31. “Poor Use of E-Learning by Professor”<br />Does not get the material onto the website on time<br />Online course incomplete<br />In class PowerPoint presentations delivered too quickly<br />
    32. 32. Student-Identified Outcomes of Problems<br />Unresolved (67%; all of the students’ top five problems)<br />Solved using a non e-learning solution<br />Professor provided assistance<br />Obtained needed computer software or hardware<br />
    33. 33. Commonalities Among Student Sub-groups– Outcomes<br />All groups, most common outcome was “unresolved”<br />All groups, next most common outcome was “none-learning solution”<br />
    34. 34. Differences Among Student Sub-groups(unexpected results)<br />Students with learning disabilities, mobility impairments, and arm/hand issues lacked knowledge about how to use e-learning effectively.<br />Students with psychiatric or health issues had problems due to poor use of e-learning by professors.<br />
    35. 35. Differences Among Student Sub-groups(expected results)<br />Students with hearing impairments had problems with accessibility of audio and video materials.<br />Students with visual impairments had troubles with inaccessibility of course notes and materials, especially PDFs.<br />
    36. 36. Legislative requirements:<br /> Sections 504 and 508<br />Guidelines:<br /> WCAG<br />Accessibility- The WHY and the HOW<br />
    37. 37. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act<br />Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 states that "no qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under" any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance.<br />Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act effectively applies the requirement of Section 504 to state and local agencies.<br />
    38. 38. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act<br />Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, implemented in 1998, requires that that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the Federal government be accessible to persons with disabilities.<br />Colleges and universities are generally not subject to Section 508, although some federal grants may require compliance with Section 508. The Federal Pell grant is an example.<br />
    39. 39. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act<br />The Federal Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility and Compliance Act, and its revisions, became the current Section 508 in 1998.<br />The Access Board is the agency established to provide standards and guidelines regarding technical compliance with Section 508.<br /> <br />
    40. 40. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act<br />Technical standards exist in six specific areas:<br />Software Applications and Operating Systems<br />Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications<br />Telecommunications Products<br />Videos or Multimedia Products<br />Self Contained, Closed Products<br />Desktop and Portable Computers<br />
    41. 41. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions<br />E103.3.1 Electronic Content<br />Any official communication of the institution that supports the institution’s mission necessary for employees to perform their job functions, or when communicated to a member of the public, are necessary for them to conduct official business with the institution, regardless of format, transmission or storage method, shall conform to provisions of Section 508.<br />
    42. 42. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions<br />Chapter 5: Electronic Documents<br />The provisions of this chapter apply to electronic documents, which are mostly static, read-only, non-interactive electronic content. Examples include Word files, PDFs, PowerPoint presentations, Excel spreadsheets, and simple web pages (which do not contain Flash).<br />
    43. 43. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions<br />Chapter 6: Synchronized Media Content and Players<br />The provisions of this chapter require that:<br />Streaming video must include real-time video descriptions<br />Video containing multiple visual areas of focus must provide video descriptions for all areas of focus<br />Controls for closed captions and video descriptions must be presented in the same context as other controls<br />Users must be able to independently control background sounds and speech tracks<br />
    44. 44. Sections 508 of the Rehabilitation Act<br />Note, there is no preference for mainstream Information Communication Technology (ICT) product accessibility. Accessibility through Assistive Technology (AT) is equally accessible.<br />
    45. 45. POUR<br />All materials for e-learning through social media must be:<br />Perceivable<br />Operable<br />Understandable<br />Robust<br />
    46. 46. Web Content Accessibility Guide<br />WCAG 2.0 Guidelines<br />1 Perceivable<br />1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.<br />1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.<br />
    47. 47. Web Content Accessibility Guide<br />WCAG 2.0 Guidelines<br />1 Perceivable<br />1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.<br />1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background. <br />
    48. 48. Web Content Accessibility Guide<br />2 Operable<br />2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard. <br />2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content. <br />2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.<br />2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are. <br />
    49. 49. Web Content Accessibility Guide<br />3 Understandable<br />3.1 Make text content readable and understandable. <br />3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. <br />3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes. <br />
    50. 50. Web Content Accessibility Guide<br />4 Robust<br />4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.<br />
    51. 51. User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)<br />Some semantic elements are not supported well by assistive technologies: code, del, dfn, ins, kbd, s, sub, sup, tt, and q. <br />Consider whether these elements are used in a way that requires users to be able to access the semantic meaning of the markup in order to understand the content, if so, this information should be provided in text. <br />
    52. 52. User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)<br />Most screen readers do not provide automatic notification about em, strong, b, or i. <br />JAWS contains support for blockquote and cite. WindowEyes contains support for blockquote, q and cite. <br />Firefox 1.0 (Windows) and higher, Opera 7.54 (Windows) and higher, Mozilla 1.7.3 (Windows) and higher automatically generate quotes around q elements, but Internet Explorer 6 for Windows does not<br />
    53. 53. Types of Disabling Conditions<br />Keyboard/mouse<br />Print<br />Speech/hearing<br />Cognitive<br />
    54. 54. Some Impairments are Not Disabling for E-Learning<br />
    55. 55. <ul><li>Paralysis
    56. 56. Amputation
    57. 57. Neurological disease
    58. 58. Degeneration
    59. 59. Blindness </li></ul>Possible Causes of Keyboard/Mouse Disability<br />
    60. 60. <ul><li>Aging
    61. 61. Low vision
    62. 62. Blindness
    63. 63. Color blindness
    64. 64. Dyslexia
    65. 65. English as a Second Language</li></ul>Possible Causes of Print Disability<br />
    66. 66. <ul><li>Aging
    67. 67. Hearing impairment
    68. 68. Deafness
    69. 69. Accident or injury
    70. 70. Stroke
    71. 71. Neurological diseases</li></ul>Possible Causes of Hearing/Speech Disability<br />
    72. 72. <ul><li>Learning disability
    73. 73. ADD/ADHD
    74. 74. PTSD
    75. 75. TBI
    76. 76. Chronic fatigue
    77. 77. Autism spectrum
    78. 78. Developmental disability</li></ul>Possible Causes of Cognitive disability<br />
    79. 79. Considering Social Media Integration<br />When considering a social media tools or services for integration into your curriculum, the following questions of Accessibility must be considered:<br />Section 504 & 508<br />Compatibility with assistive technology<br />Design: Social Networking Sites (SNS)<br />Account creation<br />Navigation<br />Ad placements and dynamic content<br />User-created content<br />Mobile access (smartphones, PDAs, iPad, etc.)<br />
    80. 80. Assistive or Adaptive Technology<br />Screen readers<br />Zoom text, screen magnifiers<br />Braille display<br />Speech recognition<br />Speech-to-Text, Text-to-Speech<br />Eye trackers<br />
    81. 81. Social Media Site Design<br />Design, of Social Networking Sites (SNS)<br />Account creation<br />Navigation<br />Ad placements<br />Dynamic content<br />User created content<br />Keyboard navigation<br />Input / Output options<br />
    82. 82. Mobile Access<br />Touch screens<br />Navigation<br />
    83. 83. Blackboard Learn 9.1 Accessibility<br />The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) recently awarded Blackboard Learn™, Release 9.1 with a Nonvisual Accessibility Gold Certification, making it the first and only learning management system to achieve certification<br />Accessibility resources for BlackboardLearn 8, 9 & 9.1<br /><br />
    84. 84. Solutions to Accessibility Barriers<br />Improved standards compliance by service providers and developers<br />Accessibility support in web browsers & plug-ins<br />Webvisum for Firefox browser (<br />Accessible versions of social media sites<br />EasyChirp (<br />Mobile Facebook (<br />AIM facebook chat<br />
    85. 85. Solutions to Accessibility Barriers<br />YouTube<br />Added capability for users to add closed captioning to their own videos<br />
    86. 86. Universal Design for Learning<br />Universal Design “promotes an expanded goal to make products and environments welcoming and useful to groups that are diverse in many dimensions, including gender, race and ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, ability, disability, and learning style” (Burgstahler, 2009)<br />
    87. 87. Universal Design for Learning<br />Students with Invisible Disabilities<br />Learning disabilities: “Some faculty at higher education institutions recognize individual differences in receptive and expressive learning profiles but make incorrect assumptions about lack of motivation, poor readiness for academic expectations of the institution, and generally low ability level.” (Spencer & Romero, 2009)<br />
    88. 88. Universal Design for Learning<br />Technological Environments<br />The learning environment should provide accessible alternative forms of or methods for:<br />Information being communicated by or via the environment<br />Provide inputs or access the environment’s controls<br />Manipulate the system or device<br />Instruction documentation<br />
    89. 89. Universal Design for Learning<br />Accessible Web-Based Multimedia<br />Produce media with accessibility in mind<br />Text description for streamed content<br />Speech and background sound should be on different tracks<br />Closed-captioning for on demand video<br />
    90. 90. Americans with Disabilities Act<br />Section 508<br />United States Access Board<br />UK Disability Discrimination Act<br />Australian Disability Discrimination Act<br />Resources – Regulations / Guidelines<br />
    91. 91. Canadian Human Rights Act, Article 25<br />United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities<br /><ul><li>Web Accessibility Initiative (WIA)</li></ul>Web Content Accessibility Guidelines<br />Center for Universal Design at North Carolina Sate University<br />Resources – Regulations / Guidelines<br />
    92. 92. 100 Killer Web Accessibility Resources: Blogs, Forums and Tutorials<br /><br />Free and Open Source Software to aid those with Visual Impairments<br /><br />Google’s Accessibility web page<br /><br />Resources – Technology<br />
    93. 93. VoiceOver, Apple Computer’s screen-access technology<br /><br />Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 Service Pack 1 to add image Alt Text capability<br /><br />LIbreOffice: an open source productivity suite that is compatible with Apple Computer’s VoiceOver<br /><br />Resources – Technology<br />
    94. 94. Logitech Dual Action™ Gamepad<br /><br />Make PDF files accessible<br /><br />Microsoft Office 2010 (for PCs)<br /><br />Resources – Technology, continued<br />
    95. 95. Nuance’s Speech Recognition<br /><br />Technology and Universal Design<br /><br />WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey #3 Results<br /><br />Resources – Technology, continued<br />
    96. 96. Web accessibility for the Twitter website application<br /><br />Web browser accessibility extensions information<br /><br />Resources – Technology, continued<br />
    97. 97. References<br />Burgstahler, S. E. (2009) Universal Design in Higher Education. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (p 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.<br />Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., Klomp, R., & Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 241–256.<br />Spencer, A. M. & Romero, O. (2009) Engaging Higher Education Faculty in Universal Design: Addressing Needs of Students with Invisible Disabilities. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (pp 145-156). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.<br />
    98. 98. Contact Us<br />Joseph Doan (SL: IzzyLander Karu)<br /><br />Gentle Heron<br /><br />