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Social media as it relates to students with disabilities in post secondary education

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Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering …

Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.

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  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Introduction of Social MediaDefinitionExamples of popular social media tools and sites
  • Affordances of each social media typeThis slide covers social medias used for sharing content
  • Social media used for interaction, community building
  • The top 5
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • All electronic content mean:
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • People will tell you their impairments.To create an accessible environment, you need to understand their disabilities.
  • AT- alternative keyboard or mouse - speech recognition software
  • AT- screen magnifiers - Screen readers - text-based interface
  • AT- interpretation - CART - captioning - print or other visual cues for sounds
  • AT- text transcription - reading and writing software
  • Participation of students with disabilities. What the educators need to be aware of when considering integration of social media into their curriculum.
  • Social Media and assistive/adaptive technology, will it work with what the user has?
  • Evaluating social media sites & services.
  • Social media on the go. How does this affect users with disabilities?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Media As It Relates to Students With Disabilities inPost-Secondary Education
      Texas A&M University System
      DTN Summer Institute 2011
      June 20 – 21
      Galveston, Texas
    • 2. Social Media as it Relates to Students With Disabilities in Post-Secondary Educationby Joseph Doan and Alice Krueger is licensed under a
      Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
    • 3. Abstract
      Social media usage is pervasive throughout almost every age group from pre-teen to senior citizens. As social media becomes a more ubiquitous part of everyday life, educators are discovering innovative ways to incorporate its use, and students have benefited from it. This presentation discusses how post-secondary education students with disabilities can also participate in and benefit from using social media tools and services like blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Second Life.
    • 4. The Presenters
      Alice Krueger
      President
      Virtual Ability, Inc.
      A former educator, professional development provider, educational researcher, and published author and editor, Ms. Krueger became fully disabled with multiple sclerosis. She now volunteers in Second Life with the Virtual Ability community, which she founded. Her organization, a 501(c)3, is dedicated to helping people with any kind of disability- physical, mental, emotional, or sensory- enter and thrive in virtual worlds. The Virtual Ability community in Second Life won the first Linden Prize for “an innovative inworld project that improves the way people work, learn and communicate in their daily lives outside of the virtual world.”
    • 5. The Presenters
      Joseph D. Doan
      Educational Technologist
      Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
      Mr. Doan joined Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi as a Technology Trainer in 2007, and began providing technology training and support to faculty at TAMUCC.  In 2009 Mr. Doan became the Educational Technologist and expanded his activities to identifying, evaluating, providing consultation and training for the integration of technology into the curriculum.  Mr. Doan served on the Texas A&M System’s Distance Education Advisory Council and is currently spearheading the adoption of the massively multi-user virtual environment Second Life at TAMUCC.  Mr. Doan is also working toward collaboration with TAMUCC’s Office of Disability Services to address accessibility of technology integrated into course instruction.
    • 6. What is Social Media & Why We Care
      Social Media is defined by Merriam Webster dictionary as “forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos).
    • 7. The Social Media Landscape
    • 8. What is Social Media & Why We Care
      Some popular social media today:
      Blogs
      Wikis
      YouTube
      Facebook
      Twitter
      Multi-User Virtual Environments
    • 9. Affordances of Social Media
      Chickering & Gamson's Seven Principles for Good Practice in Education
      Encourages contact between students and faculty
      Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
      Encourages active learning
      Gives prompt feedback
      Emphasizes time on task
      Communicates high expectations
      Respects diverse talents and ways of learning
    • 10. Encourages Contact between Students and Faculty
      Example
      Class group in FaceBook or blog
      Benefits
      Informal & conversational styled communication, and a sense of anonymity allows students to feel more at ease communicating with faculty, especially students who are shy and tend to not engage when face-to-face
      Barriers
      General accessibility concerns.The most common barrier would be the account creation, or subscription process to use the tools or service
    • 11. Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
      Example
      Assigned activities requiring selected social media to communicate, complete tasks
      Benefits
      Collaborative learning, peer mentoring, knowledge sharing, community building, etc.
      Barriers
      User-created content: most students would are not aware of accessibility concerns, and therefore would not contribute content that would be "accessible”
    • 12. Encourages Active Learning
      Example
      Formulating, reformatting tweets
      Benefits
      Critical thinking, reflection on prior knowledge, scaffolded learning
      Barriers
      Tools designed with only the majority in mind
    • 13. Give Prompt Feedback
      Example
      Tweets, blogs
      Benefits
      Information exchange is instant and continuous
      Barriers
      Notification methods do not accommodate accessibility
    • 14. Emphasize Time on Task
      Example
      Posting a blog or creating a wiki page
      Benefits
      Contributes to academic, and eventually, career goals
      Barriers
      The tool is difficult to use or requires so much time to learn that it the benefit of using the tool can’t be realized
    • 15. Communicating High Expectations
      Example
      Peer or public critique of created content
      Benefits
      The learning is more meaningful, and better prepares the student to meet the goals of a college education
      Barriers
      Students with learning impairments
    • 16. Respect Diverse Talents andWays of Learning
      Example
      Allow for different modalities of consumption and production
      Benefits
      Provides for greater validity of assessing student learning
      Barriers
      Incompatibility with Assistive Technology
    • 17. Affordances of Social Media
      Engagement: student-teacher, student-student
      Collaboration
      Critical thinking
      Active learning
      Microblogging
      Engagement
      Community building
      Sample blog: http://blogs.cornell.edu/vien-interns/
    • 18. Affordances of Virtual Worlds
      Virtual worlds like Second Life are in the unique position of having the ability to provide the follow:
      Immersive experience in a 3-D environment
      Synchronous / asynchronous collaboration on a global scale
      Digital artifact creation
      Active learning
      Multimodal
    • 19. The Study
      Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study (2009) Fichten et al.
      This study explored e-learning problems and solutions reported by 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities.
      They discuss how the different roles and perspectives of the four participant groups influence their views, and make recommendations addressing identified common e-learning problems.
    • 20. Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study
      Learning disability (largest group)
      Mobility impairment / wheelchair user
      ADD/ADHD
      Psychological or psychiatric disability
      Health or medically related impairment
      Deaf / hard of hearing
    • 21. Types of Disabilities among College Students in this Study (cont)
      Difficulty using hands or arms
      Visual impairment/ low vision
      Speech / communication impairment
      Totally blind (smallest group)
    • 22. Use of Adaptive/Assistive Technology
      62% said they needed AT to learn effectively
      Most use more than one kind of AT (mean = 2.65 technologies/student)
      Most felt they could use their AT effectively, but much variability
    • 23. Types of AT Used
      Writing software (e.g., WYNN) (most common)
      Screen reader software (e.g., JAWS)
      Scanning and OCR
      Dictation software (e.g., Dragon NaturallySpeaking)
      Screen magnifier (e.g., ZoomText)
    • 24. Types of AT Used (cont)
      Large screen monitor
      Adapted mouse
      Adapted keyboard
      Alternative display (e.g. refreshable Braille display) (least common)
    • 25. No significant difference in learning problems between AT users and those who didn’t need AT
      Is AT Use Hindering Students?
    • 26. Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities
      Online course notes available
      Aids understanding, success
      Work at own pace
      Work at home
      Other course materials available
    • 27. Reported Benefits of E-Learning among Students with Disabilities (cont.)
      Aids organization, time management
      Convenient communication with professors, peers
      Interest and stimulation
      Can reformat materials as needed
      Anonymity, reduces social anxiety
    • 28. Student-Identified Problems*
      Inaccessibility of websites/course management systems
      Technical difficulties
      Poor use of e-learning by professors
      Difficulty connecting to websites/course management systems
      Students' lack of knowledge of how to use e-learning
      * Majority of respondents had learning disabilities
      * Would be interesting to compare to students without disabilities
    • 29. Commonalities Among StudentSub-groups– Problems
      All groups had problems with:
      Inaccessible websites and course management systems
      Technical difficulties
      Audio-visuals
      Time limits
      PDFs
      Lack of needed assistive technology
    • 30. “Technical Difficulties”
      Connecting to websites and course management systems
      Downloading and opening files
      Web pages wouldn’t load
      Video clips take excessive time to download
    • 31. “Poor Use of E-Learning by Professor”
      Does not get the material onto the website on time
      Online course incomplete
      In class PowerPoint presentations delivered too quickly
    • 32. Student-Identified Outcomes of Problems
      Unresolved (67%; all of the students’ top five problems)
      Solved using a non e-learning solution
      Professor provided assistance
      Obtained needed computer software or hardware
    • 33. Commonalities Among Student Sub-groups– Outcomes
      All groups, most common outcome was “unresolved”
      All groups, next most common outcome was “none-learning solution”
    • 34. Differences Among Student Sub-groups(unexpected results)
      Students with learning disabilities, mobility impairments, and arm/hand issues lacked knowledge about how to use e-learning effectively.
      Students with psychiatric or health issues had problems due to poor use of e-learning by professors.
    • 35. Differences Among Student Sub-groups(expected results)
      Students with hearing impairments had problems with accessibility of audio and video materials.
      Students with visual impairments had troubles with inaccessibility of course notes and materials, especially PDFs.
    • 36. Legislative requirements:
      Sections 504 and 508
      Guidelines:
      WCAG
      Accessibility- The WHY and the HOW
    • 37. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
      Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 states that "no qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under" any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance.
      Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act effectively applies the requirement of Section 504 to state and local agencies.
    • 38. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
      Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, implemented in 1998, requires that that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the Federal government be accessible to persons with disabilities.
      Colleges and universities are generally not subject to Section 508, although some federal grants may require compliance with Section 508. The Federal Pell grant is an example.
    • 39. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
      The Federal Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility and Compliance Act, and its revisions, became the current Section 508 in 1998.
      The Access Board is the agency established to provide standards and guidelines regarding technical compliance with Section 508.
       
    • 40. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
      Technical standards exist in six specific areas:
      Software Applications and Operating Systems
      Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications
      Telecommunications Products
      Videos or Multimedia Products
      Self Contained, Closed Products
      Desktop and Portable Computers
    • 41. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
      E103.3.1 Electronic Content
      Any official communication of the institution that supports the institution’s mission necessary for employees to perform their job functions, or when communicated to a member of the public, are necessary for them to conduct official business with the institution, regardless of format, transmission or storage method, shall conform to provisions of Section 508.
    • 42. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
      Chapter 5: Electronic Documents
      The provisions of this chapter apply to electronic documents, which are mostly static, read-only, non-interactive electronic content. Examples include Word files, PDFs, PowerPoint presentations, Excel spreadsheets, and simple web pages (which do not contain Flash).
    • 43. Sections 508: Proposed Revisions
      Chapter 6: Synchronized Media Content and Players
      The provisions of this chapter require that:
      Streaming video must include real-time video descriptions
      Video containing multiple visual areas of focus must provide video descriptions for all areas of focus
      Controls for closed captions and video descriptions must be presented in the same context as other controls
      Users must be able to independently control background sounds and speech tracks
    • 44. Sections 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
      Note, there is no preference for mainstream Information Communication Technology (ICT) product accessibility. Accessibility through Assistive Technology (AT) is equally accessible.
    • 45. POUR
      All materials for e-learning through social media must be:
      Perceivable
      Operable
      Understandable
      Robust
    • 46. Web Content Accessibility Guide
      WCAG 2.0 Guidelines
      1 Perceivable
      1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
      1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.
    • 47. Web Content Accessibility Guide
      WCAG 2.0 Guidelines
      1 Perceivable
      1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
      1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.
    • 48. Web Content Accessibility Guide
      2 Operable
      2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
      2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content.
      2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.
      2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
    • 49. Web Content Accessibility Guide
      3 Understandable
      3.1 Make text content readable and understandable.
      3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
      3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
    • 50. Web Content Accessibility Guide
      4 Robust
      4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.
    • 51. User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)
      Some semantic elements are not supported well by assistive technologies: code, del, dfn, ins, kbd, s, sub, sup, tt, and q.
      Consider whether these elements are used in a way that requires users to be able to access the semantic meaning of the markup in order to understand the content, if so, this information should be provided in text.
    • 52. User Agent and AT Support Notes(for web designers)
      Most screen readers do not provide automatic notification about em, strong, b, or i.
      JAWS contains support for blockquote and cite. WindowEyes contains support for blockquote, q and cite.
      Firefox 1.0 (Windows) and higher, Opera 7.54 (Windows) and higher, Mozilla 1.7.3 (Windows) and higher automatically generate quotes around q elements, but Internet Explorer 6 for Windows does not
    • 53. Types of Disabling Conditions
      Keyboard/mouse
      Print
      Speech/hearing
      Cognitive
    • 54. Some Impairments are Not Disabling for E-Learning
    • 55. Possible Causes of Keyboard/Mouse Disability
    • 60. Possible Causes of Print Disability
    • 66. Possible Causes of Hearing/Speech Disability
    • 72. Possible Causes of Cognitive disability
    • 79. Considering Social Media Integration
      When considering a social media tools or services for integration into your curriculum, the following questions of Accessibility must be considered:
      Section 504 & 508
      Compatibility with assistive technology
      Design: Social Networking Sites (SNS)
      Account creation
      Navigation
      Ad placements and dynamic content
      User-created content
      Mobile access (smartphones, PDAs, iPad, etc.)
    • 80. Assistive or Adaptive Technology
      Screen readers
      Zoom text, screen magnifiers
      Braille display
      Speech recognition
      Speech-to-Text, Text-to-Speech
      Eye trackers
    • 81. Social Media Site Design
      Design, of Social Networking Sites (SNS)
      Account creation
      Navigation
      Ad placements
      Dynamic content
      User created content
      Keyboard navigation
      Input / Output options
    • 82. Mobile Access
      Touch screens
      Navigation
    • 83. Blackboard Learn 9.1 Accessibility
      The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) recently awarded Blackboard Learn™, Release 9.1 with a Nonvisual Accessibility Gold Certification, making it the first and only learning management system to achieve certification
      Accessibility resources for BlackboardLearn 8, 9 & 9.1
      http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Learn/Resources/Accessibility/Accessibility-Resources.aspx
    • 84. Solutions to Accessibility Barriers
      Improved standards compliance by service providers and developers
      Accessibility support in web browsers & plug-ins
      Webvisum for Firefox browser (www.webvisum.com)
      Accessible versions of social media sites
      EasyChirp (www.easychirp.com)
      Mobile Facebook (m.facebook.com)
      AIM facebook chat
    • 85. Solutions to Accessibility Barriers
      YouTube
      Added capability for users to add closed captioning to their own videos
    • 86. Universal Design for Learning
      Universal Design “promotes an expanded goal to make products and environments welcoming and useful to groups that are diverse in many dimensions, including gender, race and ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, ability, disability, and learning style” (Burgstahler, 2009)
    • 87. Universal Design for Learning
      Students with Invisible Disabilities
      Learning disabilities: “Some faculty at higher education institutions recognize individual differences in receptive and expressive learning profiles but make incorrect assumptions about lack of motivation, poor readiness for academic expectations of the institution, and generally low ability level.” (Spencer & Romero, 2009)
    • 88. Universal Design for Learning
      Technological Environments
      The learning environment should provide accessible alternative forms of or methods for:
      Information being communicated by or via the environment
      Provide inputs or access the environment’s controls
      Manipulate the system or device
      Instruction documentation
    • 89. Universal Design for Learning
      Accessible Web-Based Multimedia
      Produce media with accessibility in mind
      Text description for streamed content
      Speech and background sound should be on different tracks
      Closed-captioning for on demand video
    • 90. Americans with Disabilities Act
      Section 508
      United States Access Board
      UK Disability Discrimination Act
      Australian Disability Discrimination Act
      Resources – Regulations / Guidelines
    • 91. Canadian Human Rights Act, Article 25
      United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
      • Web Accessibility Initiative (WIA)
      Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
      Center for Universal Design at North Carolina Sate University
      Resources – Regulations / Guidelines
    • 92. 100 Killer Web Accessibility Resources: Blogs, Forums and Tutorials
      http://tinyurl.com/3hls7g2
      Free and Open Source Software to aid those with Visual Impairments
      http://tinyurl.com/66dctcg
      Google’s Accessibility web page
      http://www.google.com/accessibility/products/
      Resources – Technology
    • 93. VoiceOver, Apple Computer’s screen-access technology
      http://www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover/
      Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 Service Pack 1 to add image Alt Text capability
      http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2525412
      LIbreOffice: an open source productivity suite that is compatible with Apple Computer’s VoiceOver
      http://www.libreoffice.org/
      Resources – Technology
    • 94. Logitech Dual Action™ Gamepad
      http://tinyurl.com/3p5wbjv
      Make PDF files accessible
      http://www.cew.wisc.edu/accessibility/tutorials/accesspdf.htm
      Microsoft Office 2010 (for PCs)
      http://www.microsoft.com/enable/products/office2010/
      Resources – Technology, continued
    • 95. Nuance’s Speech Recognition
      http://www.nuance.com/dragon/index.htm
      Technology and Universal Design
      http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/technology.html
      WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey #3 Results
      http://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey3/
      Resources – Technology, continued
    • 96. Web accessibility for the Twitter website application
      http://www.easychirp.com/index.php
      Web browser accessibility extensions information
      http://tinyurl.com/6cr5228
      Resources – Technology, continued
    • 97. References
      Burgstahler, S. E. (2009) Universal Design in Higher Education. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (p 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
      Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., Klomp, R., & Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 241–256.
      Spencer, A. M. & Romero, O. (2009) Engaging Higher Education Faculty in Universal Design: Addressing Needs of Students with Invisible Disabilities. In S. Burgstahler & R. Cory (Eds.), Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice (pp 145-156). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    • 98. Contact Us
      Joseph Doan (SL: IzzyLander Karu)
      joseph.doan@tamucc.edu
      Gentle Heron
      gentle@virtualability.org