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    mcdonough Chapter 01 mcdonough Chapter 01 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Chapter Introduction Section 1 Early Humans Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization Section 3 The First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment The First Civilizations Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Chapter Objectives
      • Explain how learning to farm changed the way early peoples lived.
      • Describe the development of the first major civilizations in Mesopotamia’s river valleys.
      • Describe the rise and fall of the Assyrian and Chaldean Empires.
      The First Civilizations
    • The First Civilizations
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the world’s earliest humans and relates their change from nomadic hunters to farmers. Early Humans
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Early Humans
      • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.
      • In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.
    • Locating Places
      • Jericho (JEHR • ih•KOH)
      • Çatal Hüyük (chah•TAHL hoo•YOOK)
      Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.)
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn)
      • archaeologist ( AHR •kee•AH•luh•jihst)
      • artifact (AHR•tih• FAKT )
      • fossil (FAH•suhl)
      • anthropologist ( AN •thruh•PAH•luh•jihst)
      Early Humans
      • nomad (NOH• MAD )
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • technology (tehk•NAH•luh•jee)
      • domesticate (duh•MEHS•tih• KAYT )
      • specialization ( SPEH •shuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn)
      Early Humans
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Determine Cause and Effect Draw a diagram like the one on page 8 of your textbook. Use it to explain how early humans adapted to their environment. Early Humans
    • I. Early Humans
      • History is the story of humans in the past, and historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past.
      • 1. Archaeologists hunt for evidence buried in the ground.
      (pages 9 – 11) Early Humans
    • Early Humans Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
    • Early Humans (cont.)
      • 2. The early period of human history is called the Stone Age.
      • The earliest part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic period.
      • Paleolithic people were 3. nomads, travel place to place to hunt for food.
      Early Humans
      • Anthropologists study how humans developed and related to each other.
      (pages 9 – 11)
    •  
    • Early Humans (cont.)
      • Paleolithic women cared for children and gathered berries, nuts, and grains.
      • Paleolithic men hunted animals using clubs, spears, traps, and bows and arrows.
      • 4. Paleolithic people adapted to their environment.
      Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
    •  
    • Early Humans (cont.)
      • Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter.
      • Those in cold climates used caves for shelter.
      • Over time, they learned to create shelters from animal hides and wooden poles.
      Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
    • Early Humans (cont.)
      • Paleolithic people discovered fire, which kept them warm, lit the darkness, and cooked food.
      • Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages.
      • During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.
      Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
    •  
    •  
    • Early Humans (cont.)
      • Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning.
      • During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using stone called flint.
      Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
    • How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people? Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge. Early Humans
    • II. Neolithic Times
      • In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to 5. domesticate, or tame, animals and animals
      (pages 13 – 15)
      • Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool.
      • People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time.
      • Historians call this change the farming revolution.
      Early Humans
    •  
    • Neolithic Times (cont.)
      • Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, 6. people built permanent homes in villages .
      • One of the oldest villages is Jericho in present-day Israel and Jordan.
      • Another Neolithic village is Çatal Hüyük in present-day Turkey.
      • 7. Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food.
      Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
    • Neolithic Times (cont.)
      • 8. The surplus food led to a larger population .
      • Not all people in a village were farmers.
      • Some made pottery, mats, and cloth.
      • They traded these goods for things they did not have.
      Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
    • Neolithic Times (cont.)
      • 9. New Technology- people begin working with metals.
      • They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin.
      • They also began working with bronze.
      Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
    • Why was farming important to the Neolithic people? Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply. Early Humans
    • Who are archaeologists and what do they study? Archaeologists are scientists who hunt for, dig up, and study artifacts. Early Humans
    • Animals supplied meat, milk, and wool. They also carried goods and pulled carts. How did domesticating animals help the Neolithic people? Early Humans
    • Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads? They moved around to hunt animals and gather other foods. Early Humans
    • Compare Compare the technology of the Paleolithic Age with that of the Neolithic Age? Paleolithic: stone, bone, and wooden tools and weapons; Neolithic: metal tools and weapons Early Humans
    • Analyze Why was the ability to make a fire so important? Fire kept humans warm, scared animals away, and was used to cook food. Early Humans
    • Summarize the impact of farming on the human race. Early Humans
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Mesopotamian Civilization
      • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers .
      • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples .
      • Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders .
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Tigris River (TY•gruhs)
      • Euphrates River (yu•FRAY•teez)
      • Mesopotamia
      • (MEH•suh•puh•TAY•mee•uh)
      • Sumer (SOO•muhr)
      • Babylon (BA•buh•luhn)
      Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.)
      • Sargon (SAHR• GAHN )
      • Hammurabi (HA•muh•RAH•bee)
      Meeting People Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • civilization ( SIH •vuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn)
      • irrigation ( IHR •uh•GAY•shuhn)
      • city-state
      • artisan (AHR•tuh•zuhn)
      • cuneiform (kyoo•NEE•uh• FAWRM )
      • scribe (SKRYB)
      • empire (EHM• PYR )
      Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 16 of your textbook, to show how the first empire in Mesopotamia came about. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Mesopotamia’s Civilization
      • Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions .
      • They also made it easy for people to travel and trade .
      • 1. Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system .
      (pages 17 – 20)
      • Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good .
      Mesopotamian Civilization
      • Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable .
      • Farmers learned to control the rivers with dams and channels .
      • 2. Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers .
      Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)
      • They also used the rivers to 3. irrigate, or water, their crops .
      Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
      • Sumerian cities were 4. city-states, with their own governments .
      • Sumerian cities often fought each other .
      • Many cities formed in a southern region of Mesopotamia known as Sumer .
      Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)
      • To protect themselves, the city-states built walls around themselves .
      Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
      • Each city-state had a 5. ziggurat, or grand temple, to honor the gods.
      • Sumerians believed in many gods .
      Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
      • Most Sumerians were farmers, but some were 6. artisans, or skilled workers .
      Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)
      • Others were merchants and traders .
      Mesopotamian Civilization
      • Sumerian city-states had three classes .
      • The upper class consisted of kings, priests, and government officials.
      • The middle class consisted of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers .
      (pages 17 – 20)
    • Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)
      • The lower class consisted of slaves .
      Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
    • What effect did irrigation have on the people of Mesopotamia? Irrigation allowed farmers to grow plenty of food. More food meant more people could be fed, so the population grew. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • A Skilled People
      • Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas .
      • Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas.
      (pages 20 – 21)
      • 8. Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform .
      • Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write.
      Mesopotamian Civilization
    • A Skilled People (cont.)
      • The Sumerians also invented new 9. technology such as the wagon wheel, the sailboat, and the plow .
      • The Sumerians also produced the oldest known story, the Epic of Gilgamesh .
      • The Sumerians developed many mathematical ideas, including geometry, a number system based on 60, and a 12-month calendar.
      Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 20 – 21)
    • Why did Sumerians study the skies? The locations of the planets and stars guided the Sumerians’ farming and festivals. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Sargon and Hammurabi
      • Sargon, the king of the Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world’s first empire .
      (page 23)
      • An empire is a group of many different lands under one ruler .
      • After Sargon, another group of people became powerful .
      • They built the city of Babylon on the Euphrates River .
      Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Reigned c. 1792–1750 B.C Hammurabi
    • Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.)
      • The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, conquered lands north and south of Babylon to create the Babylonian Empire .
      (page 23)
      • The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family .
      • Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system .
      Mesopotamian Civilization
    • What were some of the benefits of living in Hammurabi’s empire? What were some of the drawbacks? Benefits: Living in a large, powerful empire helps keep enemies from taking over the land; Hammurabi’s code helped keep people from committing crimes against one another. Drawbacks: Hammurabi’s code had cruel punishments; people were governed by one person, Hammurabi, instead of living in a representative government. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • What is civilization? a complex society with cities, an organized government, art, religion, a system of writing, and class divisions Mesopotamian Civilization
    • a set of laws that the Babylonian leader Hammurabi established for his empire What was the Code of Hammurabi? Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Geography Skills How was the geography of Mesopotamia suited for the growth of population and creation of a civilization? Mesopotamia was located in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These rivers often flooded, leaving behind rich soil for farming, which made it easier to feed large numbers of people. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Science Link Why did the Sumerians record the positions of stars and planets and develop a calendar? to learn the best times to plant crops and hold religious festivals Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Persuasive Writing Imagine you are living in a city-state in ancient Sumer. Write a letter to a friend describing which Mesopotamian idea or invention you believe will be the most important to humanity. Answers will vary. Mesopotamian Civilization
    • Review the Sumerian technologies that changed the world. Mesopotamian Civilization
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Empires
      • Assyria’s military power and well organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C.
      • The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week .
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Assyria (uh•SIHR•ee•uh)
      • Persian Gulf (PUHR•zhuhn)
      • Nineveh (NIH•nuh•vuh )
      • Hanging Gardens
      Meeting People
      • Nebuchadnezzar
      • ( NEH •byuh•kuhd•NEH•zuhr)
      The First Empires
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • province (PRAH•vuhns)
      • astronomer (uh•STRAH•nuh•muhr)
      • caravan (KAR•uh• VAN )
      Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Complete a Venn diagram like the one on page 26 of your textbook. List the similarities and differences between the Assyrian Empire and the Chaldean Empire. The First Empires
    • The Assyrians
      • The Assyrian empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi.
      • 1. The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons.
      • Their weapons were stronger than those of copper and tin.
      (pages 27 – 28) The First Empires
      • They fought with spears, daggers, bows and arrows, chariots and soldiers on horseback.
      The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
      • The empire was divided into 2. provinces, which are political districts.
      • Each province was governed by an official who collected taxes and enforced laws.
      • The capital of the Assyrian empire was Nineveh.
      The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
      • One of the first libraries was in Nineveh and held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs.
      • People began to rebel because of Assyria’s cruel treatment.
      • The Assyrians built large temples and palaces, with statues and wall carvings.
      The Assyrians (cont.)
      • The Chaldeans rebelled and took control of Nineveh in 612 B.C.
      The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
    • How were the Assyrians like other Mesopotamians? The Assyrians and the Mesopotamians built temples and palaces. Both used art and writing. The First Empires
    • The Chaldeans
      • The Chaldeans, who were descendents of Babylonians, rebuilt Babylon.
      • 3. Nebuchadnezzar was the king of the Chaldeans.
      (pages 29 – 30)
      • The city became the center of the Chaldeans’ empire.
      • The city was surrounded by a huge wall. Inside the wall were palaces, temples, and a huge ziggurat.
      The First Empires
    • The Chaldeans (cont.)
      • The Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
      • 4.Nebechadnezzar ordered the Hanging Gardens to be built for his wife , who missed her green, mountainous homeland.
      The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
    • The Chaldeans (cont.)
      • The Chaldeans were merchants, artisans, and traders.
      • Babylon was on a major trade route and profited from trade.
      The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
    • The Chaldeans (cont.)
      • Their 5. astronomers (people who study the heavenly bodies) mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon.
      • The Chaldeans studied the sky to understand the gods.
      • The Chaldeans lost control of their empire to the Persians.
      The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
    • What made Babylon the world’s richest city? Being on a major trade route meant merchants and artisans benefited from trade. The city also had beautiful structures, such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate. The First Empires
    • The First Empires Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting force? It had a well-organized army with advanced weapons.
    • The First Empires They mapped stars, planets, and phases of the moon and created the sundial and seven-day week. What were some of the accomplishments of Chaldean astronomers?
    • Analyze How did the Assyrians set up a well organized government? They divided the empire into provinces, and chose provincial officials to collect taxes and enforce laws. The First Empires
    • Conclude Why do you think the Assyrians took conquered peoples from their lands and moved them to other places? Possible answer: It would make it more difficult for conquered people to rise up against the Assyrians. The First Empires
    • Descriptive Writing Write a paragraph that might be found in a travel brochure describing the beauty of ancient Babylon. Answers will vary. The First Empires
    • Science Link What different types of knowledge and skills would the Babylonians need to build the Hanging Gardens? Answers will vary. The First Empires
    • Describe two main points about the Assyrians and Chaldeans. The First Empires
    •  
    • Section 1: Early Humans Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Civilizations
      • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.
      • In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.
    • Section 2: Mesopotamian Civilization Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
      • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples.
      • Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders.
      The First Civilizations
    • Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Assyria’s military power and well-organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C .
      • The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week.
      Section 3: The First Empires The First Civilizations
    •  
    • __ 1. A ___ kept records in cuneiform. __ 2. An ___ is a group of many different lands under one ruler. __ 3. Assyrian kings divided their empire into political districts called ___. Review Vocabulary A. historians B. provinces C. empire D. city-state E. scribe C B Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. E The First Civilizations
    • __ 4. ___ are people who study and write about the human past. __ 5. A ___ had its own government and was not part of any larger unit. Review Vocabulary A. historians B. provinces C. empire D. city-state E. scribe D Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. A The First Civilizations
    • How did Paleolithic people adapt to their environment? They adapted to the environment by making tools and clothes and by using fire. The First Civilizations Section 1 Early Humans Review Main Ideas
    • The First Civilizations Section 1 Early Humans Review Main Ideas What were the major differences between people who lived in the Paleolithic period and those who lived in the Neolithic period? People who lived in the Paleolithic period were hunters and gatherers. Neolithic people were farmers and traders who built communities.
    • Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization The First Civilizations Review Main Ideas Where were the first civilizations in Mesopotamia? in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
    • The First Civilizations Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization Review Main Ideas How did Sumerian city-states lose power? Conflicts weakened them and they became vulnerable to attacks by outsiders.
    • Section 3 The First Empires What helped Assyria build an empire in Mesopotamia? its military power and well organized government The First Civilizations Review Main Ideas
    • The First Civilizations Section 3 The First Empires Review Main Ideas What scientific advancement did the Chaldeans make? They mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon; created the sundial; and used the seven-day week.
    • Explain Why do you think Mesopotamia is sometimes called the “cradle of civilization”? Some of the earliest known civilizations arose in Mesopotamia and had a great effect on world history. The First Civilizations
    • Analyze Why was the switch from hunting and gathering to farming important enough to be called the farming revolution? Farming allowed early humans to settle into villages, which was a new way of living that led to the rise of civilizations. The First Civilizations
    • Describe What rights did women have in the city-states of Sumer? They could buy and sell property and run businesses. The First Civilizations
    • Predict How successful do you think the Assyrian army would have been if it had not learned how to strengthen iron? Answers will vary. You should note that the Assyrians still would have been powerful because of their strategies and ruthlessness. The First Civilizations
    •  
    • Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 1-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
    • Map s The Rise of Farming Communities 7000 – 2000 B.C. Ancient Mesopotamia Assyrian Empire Chart Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    •  
    •  
    • Scientists believe early humans made tools from other materials besides stone. They probably used wooden sticks to dig holes and used bark from trees to make containers. Unlike stone, these organic materials decay, so remnants from the early humans are unavailable. Early Humans
    • Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania spent 30 years developing the first Sumerian language dictionary. Mesopotamian Culture
    • The Chaldeans in today’s Iraq still speak Aramaic, the language of ancient Babylon. The First Empires
    • Get Ready to Read! Learn It! Reading Social Studies Before you read, take time to preview the chapter. This will give you a head start on what you are about to learn. Follow the steps on the next slide to help you quickly read, or skim, Section 1 on page 9 of your textbook.
    • 2. The under each main head tells you the “big picture.” It summarizes the main point of what you are about to read. 1. Read the main headings in large red type. They show the main topics covered in the section or chapter. Reading Social Studies
        • Early Humans
        • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive .
        • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________
        • History is the story of humans …
        • Tools of Discovery
    • 3. The Reading Focus helps you to make a connection between what you might already know and what you are about to read. 4. Under each main head, read the subheads in blue type. Subheads break down each main topic into smaller topics. Reading Social Studies
        • Early Humans
        • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive .
        • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________
        • History is the story of humans …
        • Tools of Discovery
        • Early Humans
        • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive .
        • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________
        • History is the story of humans …
        • Tools of Discovery
      Reading Social Studies
    • Preview by Skimming Practice It! Skim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3, starting on page 26 of your textbook. Then in small groups, discuss the questions below.
      • Which part of this section do you think will be most interesting to you?
      • What do you think will be covered in Section 3 that was not covered in Section 2?
      Reading Social Studies
    • Preview by Skimming Practice It!
      • Are there any words in the Main Ideas that you do not know how to pronounce?
      • Choose one of the Reading Focus questions to discuss in your group.
      Reading Social Studies Skim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3, starting on page 26 of your textbook. Then in small groups, discuss the questions below.
    • The First Civilizations Introduction
    • Early Humans
    • The First Empires
    • Paleolithic Cave Paintings
    • Science and Inventions One of the most important advances of prehistoric people was the creation of stone tools. Tools made hunting, gathering, building shelter, and making clothing much easier. The first tools were made of stones. Early humans quickly learned that grinding, breaking, and shaping the stones to create sharp edges made them more useful. As technology advanced, people began making specific tools such as food choppers, meat scrapers, and spear points. In time, people learned that hitting a stone in a particular way would produce a flake—a long, sharp chip. Flakes were similar to knives in the way they were used. Tools
    • Connecting to the Past Stones were easy to fashion into tools. 1. Why do you think early people chose stones to make their first tools? 2. How were flakes created? by chipping stones pieces until they flaked into the right shape
    • c. 3300 B.C Ötzi the Iceman
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–1 Chapter 1
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–2 Chapter 1
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–3 Chapter 1
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