Assimilation Accommodation A balance Creates Equilibrium. An imbalance Creates Disequilibrium.
Sensory Motor (Birth-2) Preoperational (2-7) Concrete Operations (7-11) Formal Operations (11-16) The Stages Of Cognitive Development : “ Object Permanence ” “ Egocentrism” “ Interiorized Action” “ Abstract Thought”
Sensory-Motor Stage (Birth-2) <ul><li>Six Substages: </li></ul><ul><li>Random and reflex actions (0-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary circular reactions (1-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary circular reactions (4-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of secondary schemata (8-14) </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary circular reactions (12-18) </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of new means through mental combinations (18-2yrs) </li></ul>
Sensory Motor Substages (1-3) Random and Reflex Actions (1st substage): “ Random but Important.” Primary Circular Reactions (2nd substage): “ The recognition of shapes, objects and faces.” Secondary Circular Reactions (3rd substage): “ Imitation.”
Sensory Motor Substages (4-6) Coordination of secondary schemata (4th substage): “ Intent. Object Independence. Symbolic Thought.” Tertiary circular reactions (5th substage): “ Rapid expansion of Schema.” New Means through new combinations (6th substage): “ Thought before action.”
Preoperational Stage (2-7) Key Terms and Concepts: “ Egocentric behavior” “ transductive reasoning” “ syncretic thought” “ juxtaposition reasoning” “ animism” “ artificialism” Preconceptual Stage (ages two to four) Preceptual or Intuitive Thought Period ( ages four to seven)
Preconceptual Stage (2-4) In the Preconceptual stage the child begins to use language and mental images, and attempts to generalize in illogical ways.
Preceptual/Intuitive Thought Period (4-7) In the Period of Intuitive Thought , Problem-solving depends on instinctive Thought and appearances, not on judgment Or reasoning.
Concrete Operations (7-11) <ul><li>“… the child now can now operate in thought on concrete objects or their representations.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Logic V. Surface Appearances. </li></ul>
Formal Operations (11, or 12 -->) “ Operate on Operations” “ Think about thought rather than about concrete things.” -- Hypotheses
Epistemology is simply The development of Knowledge or logical Structures over time. How do we come to know what we know? Development is continuous and consistent.